Integration is the act or process of combining
two or more things, so that they work together.
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary
INTEGRATION IS BUILT AT SEVERAL LEVELS: one should to know who integrates, their good qualities, their common actions, why they get united -purposes of integration.
A flag, a coat of arms, an anthem are symbols of state integration, as well as a company logo, company colours, company uniform are symbols of company integration.
Events and common actions shared by multitude of people can also contribute to integration: a National Day, New Year, Easter and other holidays celebrated by everyone.
Also mentioning the texts known for everyone in the group: like fairy tales, cartoons or quotes that everyone knows, appeals to common knowledge and has an integrative effect.
Some words have integrative meaning, thus, increase integrative potential of the text:
adjectives: common, shared etc.
pronouns: we, us, our
verbs of common action: participate, share, unite, do together etc.
nouns with meaning of multitude: people, group, nation, team
They are markers of integration.
Integrative character of oral communication is determined by markers of involvement, American sociolinguists D. Tannen and W. Chafe present a list such involvement markers:
- personal character of communication via employment of details, imagery and particularization,
- 1-st and 2-nd person pronouns,
- focus on personalities and personal relations between people.
Integration is strengthened by back channel signals and attention signals:
- the audience members listen attentively,
- look at the speaker,
- finish the phrase instead of the speaker, showing that they understand his ideas,
- speak with the speaker cheerfully,
- ask «comfortable» questions, that are easy and nice to answer.
Signs of integration are singled out by the Russian scholar E. I. Sheigal. She divides them into specialized and non-specialized signs of integration. Among the specialized signs of integration are markers of «ours»:
- inclusive «we»;
- commonality lexemes (together, all, our, unity, solidarity, union, association);
- vocatives with connotation «I am yours» (friends, comrades, brother and sisters, fellow citizens, compatriots, colleagues);
- grammar forms of indirect imperative (1-st p. pl.) with the meaning of inclusion in speaker's sphere of activity (Let us make our land strong ... We won't allow the aggressors ...).
THE USA POLITICAL SYSTEM | Task 11. Complete the sentences with the proper word using the words from the chart of task 2. | Task 13. Complete the text with the proper word from the box below. | DEFINIG DEMOCRACY | THE BILL OF RIGHTS | IV. 2. Choose the best alternative. | Review the following basic rules of the use of the modals in the English language. | Task 1. Choose the best alternative a), b) or c). | Remember you should change the adverbial modifier of time while making statements reported. The following table will help you. | I Choose the best alternative from the variants in the text below. |