1. 1. ϳ .

(The Pronoun)

' , :

'
I - he - she - it - (-, -) we - you - , they - my - (-, -) his - her - its - , our - (-, -) your - , their - me - him - her - it - , us - you - , them -

, :

my - minehis - his her - hersIts-its our - oursyour - yours their - theirs

This book is not yours, in is mine.- , .

:

who - whose - what - which - how many - ( ) how much - ( )

some, any, no, every one, body, thing , where - .

some someonesomebody- something- somewhere-
any anyoneanybody- anything- anywhere-
no / not any no onenobody nothing nowhere
every everyoneeverybody, everything everywhere,

-s (-es).

, :

.
-s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o -es bus - buses, watch-watches
radio- radios, piano -pianos, photo - photos, video - videos
+ y ies baby - babies
(a, e, o, u) + y ys toy - toys
-f, fe ves leaf - leaves
roof - roofs, chief - chiefs

, :

man () men () mouse () mice ()
woman () women () goose () geese ()
child () children () sheep () sheep ()
tooth () tooth () deer () deer ()
foot () feet () fish () fish ()

(The Positive Degree) (The Comparative Degree) (The Superlative Degree)
short () big () shorter () bigger () the shortest () the biggest ()
, -er, -ly, -y, -w heavy () lonely () heavier () lonelier ( ) the heaviest () the loneliest ( )
Attractive (-) more attractive ( ) the mostattractive ()

:

(The Positive Degree) (The Comparative Degree) (The Superlative Degree)
much, many () more () most ()
little, few () less, fewer () least, fewest ()
good () better () best ()
bad () worse () worst ()
far () farther ( ) farthest ()
far () further ( ) furthest ()

:

as ... as ( ... ...) He is as tall as his father. ³ , .
not so ... as ( ... ...) She is not so clever as her sister. , .
more / less ... than ( / ... ) The red car is more expensive than the black one. , .
the ... the ( ... ) The sooner you come, the better. , .
the more ... the more ... ( ... ) The more reliable, the more expensive a car is. , .

䳺 to be

ij (The Indicative Mood)

Indefinite Continuous Perfect
Present I amhe iswe areyou arethey are I am beinghe is beingwe are beingyou are beingthey are being I have beenhe has beenwe have beenyou have beenthey have been
Am I? Am I being? Have I been?
I am not I am not being I have not been
Past I washe waswe wereyou werethey were I was beinghe was beingwe were beingyou were beingthey were being I had beenhe had beenwe had beenyou had beenthey had been
Was I? Was I being? Had I been?
I was not I was not being I had not been
Future I shall behe will bewe shall beyou will bethey will be - - - - - I shall have beenhe will have beenwe shall have beenyou will have beenthey will have been
Shall I be? - Shall I have been?
I shall not be - I shall not have been

there is / there are

'
there is there are
, , , ,

there is / there are , :

There are twelve months in a year.- .

There iswaswill be a new shop near our house. There arewerewill be two new shops near our house.
IsWasWill therebe a new shop near our house? AreWereWill therebe two new shops near our house?
There is notwas notwill be no a new shop near our house. There are notwere notwill be no two new shops near our house?

䳺 (Modal Verbs)

ij can (could), may (might), must, ought, need 䳺. 䳺 䳺 to be, to have 䳺 shall - should.

䳺 , 䳺. , , 䳿, .

, :

1. 䳺 ,

can - could, may - might.

2. , 䳺, to. 䳺 ought to.

You may take it.- .

You ought to help him.- .

3. 䳺 -s:

He must go now.- ³ .

4. 䳺 to do, 䳺 .

Can you do it? - ?

5. not, 䳺.

You may not take it.- .



| ij to be

- ò | | | | Indefinite | Present, Past Future Indefinite | Continuous | Present, Past Future Continuous | Perfect | Present, Past Future Perfect |

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