C E R E B R A L H E M O R R H A G E (APOPLEXY)
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation:
Consciousness [ 'k?n??snis], stupor [' stju: p?], variety [v?'rai?ti], neuron [ 'nju?r?n], clonus [' kl?un?s], diversity [dai'v?: siti], initial [i'ni? (?) l]
Exercise 2. Topic vocabulary:
Mental aberration - психічний розлад
Clonus - м'язове скорочення
Deviation - відхилення
Diversity - різноманітність
Gross blood - масивна кровотеча
To subside - падати, спадати
Grave prognosis - загрозливий прогноз
Flaccid - в'ялий, слабкий
Evident - явний, очевидний, безсумнівний
Instance - випадок
To last - тривати
Exercise 3. Find the equivalent:
1. hemorrhage a. the circular opening in the centre of the iris
2. pupil b. a state of unrousable consciousness
3. coma c. the escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel
4. reflex d. a sensationthat he or his surroundings are in a state of
5. dizziness e. an automatic or involuntary activity caused by simple
Exercise 4. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:
Serious complication, gradual development, ankle clonus, visual disturbances, suddenness of the onset, spinal fluid, profound coma, initial acute symptoms, subsequent attacks, affected side, increasing muscle tone.
Exercise 5. Translate into Russian paying attention to the Complex subject:
Cerebral hemorrhage is most likely to occur in persons with hypertension and artheriosclerosis.
Macrophages appear to be the first cells to interact with the arterial wall in marked hypercholesteremia.
Paralyses lasting 2 weeks or longer are likely to be more or less permanent.
Human milk is less likely to lead to allergic problems then other foods.
Environmental factors are known to be of significance.
Additional studies are required to determine the precise role of protein.
Goat's milk has been proved to be good for eyes thanks to the rich presence of vitamin A.
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE (APOPLEXY)
Etiology. Cerebral hemorrhage is most likely to occur in persons who have hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In fact, it is one of the serious complications of hypertension. Most cases occur after the age of fifty.
Symptoms and signs. The onset is usually sudden with the development of severe headache, paralysis or unconsciousness within a few minutes. Some cases, however, are marked by a more gradual development during which period the patient complains of dizziness, visual disturbances, headache and perhaps mental aberrations.
For some unexplained reasons the branches of the sylvian arteries - those which supply the motor area of ??the brain - are the ones most commonly affected and consequently paralyses are commonly observed.
In the more serious cases unconsciousness occurs within a relatively short period after the onset, and by the time the physician is called the patient is in a deep stupor. A variety of neurological signs may be evident, depending of course upon the location of the hemorrhage. There is often a deviation of the eyes which usually "look toward the affected side." The pupils are fixed; there may be evident paralysis of the facial muscles on the affected side.
During the early stages the limbs may be flaccid, but, later, evidence of upper motor neuron involvement becomes evident with the increasing muscle tone, hyperactive reflexes and presence of pathologic reflexes (Babinsky, Hoffman, and others). Ankle clonus may be evident. Hemorrhage into parts of the brain other than the motor area may produce a diversity of symptoms and findings.
Diagnosis. In severe cases there is usually little difficulty with the diagnosis - the presence of hypertension, the suddenness of the onset, the development of paralysis being found in combination. Examination of the spinal fluid reveals an increase of the pressure and in most instances there will be gross blood.
Prognosis. The prognosis of cerebral hemorrhage is grave. It is poorest in those cases in which profound coma persists for twenty-four hours or longer and in those patients who develop a high fever. If consciousness returns, the patient stands a good chance of recovery, but may suffer from subsequent attacks at any time. Paralyses often improve after one or two weeks as the edema of the brain subsides. Paralyses lasting two weeks or longer are likely to be more or less permanent.
Treatment. The treatment of cerebral hemorrhage is largely supportive. Close nursing attention to prevent strangulation and aspiration is important. In those cases in which the patient recovers from the initial acute symptoms, every effort should be directed toward the maintenance of muscle function by massage and passive exercise.
Exercise 7. Answer the questions:
What are the causes of apoplexy?
At what age is apoplexy likely to occur?
Is the onset of the disease sudden or gradual?
Why is paralysis most commonly observed?
What eye signs are evident in cerebral hemorrhage?
What is the prognosis of the disease?
What does treatment consist of?
Exercise 8. Find synonyms to the following words in the text:
Bleeding, giddiness, case, investigation, extremities, constant, data, convalescence, elevation, deep
Exercise 9. Find English equivalents to the following word combinations:
Серйозне ускладнення, поступовий розвиток, зорові розлади, м'язовий тонус, уражена сторона, локалізація крововиливу, лицьові м'язи, відносно короткий період, залучення верхнього моторного нейрона, надактивні рефлекси, спинномозкова рідина, початкові гострі симптоми, глибока кома, масивна кровотеча, наступні напади, раптовість початку.
Exercise 10.Insert prepositions:
There may be evident paralysis ... the facial muscles ... affected area.
In serious cases unconsciousness occurs ... a relatively short period.
... The early stages the limbs may be flaccid.
The prognosis is poor ... cases when profound coma persists ... twenty-four hours or longer.
Some cases of apoplexy are marked ... a more gradual development.
Neurological signs may depend ... the location ... hemorrhage.
... Severe cases there is usually little difficulty ... the diagnosis.
Exercise 11. Translate the sentences with the Complex subject (revision)
1. After vitamin injections some patients seem to have improved.
2. He was known to have had a hernia for many years.
3. Precise monitoring of serum electrolytes would appear essential before and during antiarrhythmic drug therapy.
4. Coronary patients have now been established to be at increased risk of cardiac mortality.
5. Injuries are most likely to have occurred in children.
6. The number of drugs are known to have been available for the treatment of cardiac failures.
7. The cell happened to have divided during the experiment.
Exercise 12. Translate the following sentences using the Complex subject:
1. Лімфоцити, як відомо, регулюють імунну відповідь.
2. Ферменти, мабуть, дуже лабільні.
3. Очевидно, онкологи навчаться лікувати рак.
4. Повідомили, що вчені Канади ізолювали ген, що визначає стать дитини.
5. Виявили, що це явище має широке поширення.
6. Відомо, що гіпертонія та ішемічна хвороба серця складають великий відсоток захворюваності.
7. Повідомлялося, що операції з імплантації штучного серця людині проводяться в США і в нашій країні.
8. Відомо, що операції з імплантації штучного серця складні і багатопланові.
9. Відомо, що створені портативні дефібрилятори.
10. Результати виявилися задовільними.
Exercise 13. What do you mean by
Exercise 14.SYMPTOMS.Choose the correct answers.
1. She has been working so hard she feels quite ....
a) careful b) dull c) exhausted d) wasted
2. The dog was in a terrible ... when we found it.
a) condition b) danger c) illness d) sickness
3. His illness made him ... of concentration.
a) incapable b) incompetent c) powerless d) unable
4. I felt a sharp ... when I put my hand in the boiling water.
a) ache b) harm c) pain d) suffer
5. If you have got measles, your body is covered in ....
a) blots b) dots c) freckles d) spots
6. There is a small hard ... on my wrist. I think I'd better see the doctor.
a) bruise b) lump c) rash d) swelling
7. I have a bad cold, and have lost all ... of smell.
a) degree b) scent c) sense d) skill
8 He ... from rheumatism.
a) hurts b) pains c) suffers d) troubles
9. Women seem able to ... pain better than men.
a) bear b) carry c) support d) wear
10. I could not go to the party because of a ... cold.
a) fast b) hurried c) sudden d) surprising
11.I have a ... headache.
a) burning b) raving c) spitting d) splitting
12. Her sister's ... kept me awake for half the night.
a) blowing b) coughing c) flowing d) swallowing
13. His stomach began to ... because of the bad food he had eaten.
a) ache b) be hurt c) harm d) pain
14. You can die from breathing the ... from a car engine for too long.
a) air b) fumes c) smoke d) steam
15. He says he has got ... in his stomach.
a) aches b) hurt c) pains d) suffering.
1. Insult is one of the serious complications of ....
d) angina pectoris
e) myocardial infarction
2. Most cases of apoplexy occur after the age of ....
3. The onset of apoplexy is usually ....
4. Apoplexy is most commonly accomponied by ....
5. The prognosis is poorest in those patients who develop ....
a) severe cough
e) a high fever
6. Paralyses often improve after ... as the edema of the brain subsided.
a) one or two days
b) one or two weeks
c) several days
d) a month
e) several months
7. Examination of the spinal fluid reveals an increase of the ....
a) leucocyte count
d) erythrocyte count
8. Paralyses lasting ... or longer are likely to be more or less permanent.
a) one or two days
b) three-four days
c) a week
d) two weeks
e) a month
9. A vaiety of neurological signs may be evident depending ... the location of the hemorrage.
10. If consciousness returns, the patient may suffer ... subsequent attacks at any time.
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