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Passive Voice

  1. A voice came suddenly out of the shadows, a soft, misty sort of voice.
  2. Active Passive
  3. Active voice
  4. Active Voice
  5. Active Voice
  6. And then, out of nowhere, the pain in his scar peaked. As he clutched his forehead and closed his eyes, a voice screamed inside his head.
  7. As Harry stepped down, a drawling, delighted voice sounded in his ear.
definite to be asked Present Past Future
am askedis askedare asked was askedwere asked shall be askedwill be asked
Is he asked? He is not asked.He is not asked. Was he askedHe was not asked.He was not asked. Will he be askedHe will not be asked.He will not be asked.
Continuous to be being asked
am being askedis being askedare being asked was being askedwere being asked - Future Continuous Future Indefinite
Am I being asked? I am not being asked. Was I being askedI was not being asked. -
Perfect to have been asked
have been askedhas been asked had been asked shall have been askedwill have been asked
Have I been asked? I have not been asked. Had I been asked? I had not been asked. Shall I have been asked? I shall not have been asked.

.

'!
' 䳺, 䳺, - , .

Active Voice Passive Voice
I took the book, ( ) The bookwas taken by me.
He gaveme a book. ( ) Iwas given a book.
We spoke much about this film. = ( ) This filmwas much spoken about.

: by with , ,
, .

Who was the device invented by? ?
Our lab is equipped with modern computers. co '.

! 䳺 .

1. 䳺, , 䳺, :

to enter
to join
to answer
to affect
to influence
to attend
to follow

:Passive Voice 䳺 . , , .

My question was answered at once. .
Thisdiscovery was followed by many important inventions. .

2. , 䳺, , 䳺, :

to listen to
to wait for
to touch upon
to account for
to entrust with

:, 䳺, .

His speech was listenedtovery attentively. .
The delegates were waited for. .

1. Passive Voice:

) 䳺 "" . 䳺
" " .
:

The text is translated. .
The text was translated. .
The text will be translated. .

) -, -.
:
The liquid fuel is gradually г
injected into the cylinder. .

) 䳺 ( by).
:
I was helped by my friend. ̳ .

) - .
:
The article was discussed .
at the conference.

. 䳺 .

His new invention was 0
much spoken about.

2. ϳ Passive Voice:
) () .
:
The house will be built. .

) () .
:
was seen in the laboratory. .
was a sent all the necessary
equipment. .

) () - .
:
An engineer was sent for. .
This article is often referred to. .

  1. . 䳺

(Word-building. The suffixes of verbs)

' 䳺:
-en

hard - to harden -
sharp - to sharpen -

I) fy

pure - to purify -
glory - to glorify -

Ize

special - to specialize -
neutral - to neutralize - .

E x e r c i s e s

  1. Form Participle II from the following verbs:

to ask, to use, to build, to call, to found, to find, to condense, to reduce, to cool, to keep, to support, to award, to concern, to offer, to cut, to place, to encourage , to know, to develop, to limit, to direct, to move, to shape, to arrange, to hold, to give, to invite, to include, to design, to make, to present, to write, to derive, to reach, to take, to think, to obtain, to speak, to pay, to send.

  1. Form:

Passive Indefinite Infinitive
to see - to be seen
to ask - to be asked

Passive Continuous Infinitive
to finish - to be being finished
to write - to be being written

Passive Perfect Infinitive
to shape - to have been shaped
to think - to have been thought
to discover, to influence, to base, to perform, to lay, to tell, to do, to give, to examine, to arrange, to provide, to elaborate, to construct, to set, to study, to complete, to replace , to offer, to undertake, to understand, to put, to accept, to investigate, to recognise, to evaluate, to need, to suggest, to study, to discuss.

III. Identify the sentences in the Passive Voice.
1. The first industrial revolution took place in England. 2. Efficiency is achieved by using efficient methods, devices and personnel organisations. 3. Automation was first applied to assembly line manufacturing. 4. We rarely use those substances in our research because they are not always available. 5. The fourth industrial revolution will be characterized by the use of automated programmable machines. 6. This pioneer study will involve a lot of difficulty. 7. After Dr. Robinson had finished that fundamental research he gave a complete account of the work. 8. All the things for the experiment are ready. 9. Single shaft turbine generators are being successfully constructed today. 10. The new method will come into use when suitable appliances and devices are provided. 11. The negative results had been obtained before modern equipment was installed. 12. Our professor is going to write a paper on the subject of powdered metals. 13. These two principles have been accepted without question by later writers on the subject. 14. The laboratory assistant has described the procedure in detail. 15. A plasma may be completely ionized in which state all the molecules are devided into ions and electrons.

IV. Make the sentences a) interrogative; b) negative.
1. Sound was amplified by a loudspeaker. 2. We shall be given new equipment. 3. The experiment had been completed by the end of the last year. 4. The lecture was being listened to with great attention. 5. Plastics are used in engineering. 6. New automatic driving systems are being used now. 7. This process is known as smelting. 8. The metal is heated to a high temperature. 9. Some new devices are being demonstrated now. 10. New models of computers will have been suggested by 2000.

V. Put the following sentences in a) Past Indefinite Passive; b) Future Indefinite Passive. Add the necessary adverbial modifiers.
1. The engineers are given interesting problems for solving. 2. Automatic tools are used by the operator. . He is allowed to use a computer. 4. Metals are flowed out into special containers. 5. The experiments with new devices are carried out. 6. Metal is processed in various ways. 7. Any new design of a solar power station is discussed. 8. The problem of computer development is considered by the scientists. 9. The efficiency of this device is increased. 10. The particles of nuclei are studied.

VI. Complete the following sentences using the words given below.

1. The machine is installed 2. New devices are developed
was installed will be developed
has been installed are being developed
will be installed have been developed
is being installed will have been developed

3. The losses have been calculated 4. Computers were being applied
will be calculated are applied
are calculated have been applied
are being calculated had been applied
had been calculated are being applied

5. Superalloys will be shaped
are shaped
are being shaped
were shaped
have been shaped

yesterday, at this time, tomorrow, in some days, usually, as a rule. often, already, a week ago, just, by the next month, not yet, by this time yesterday, last year, since this week, next year, never, always, from 2 to 5 o'clock yesterday.

VII. Make these sentences passive. Mind the preposition by.

Model: The sun heats the air.
The air is heated by the sun.

1. Scientists will make new discoveries. 2. Magnetic field does not affect the neutron. 3. For a year specialists were studying German experience in chemical industry. 4. They will be doing this work all the day tomorrow. 5. In my research work I'll have already concerned with semiconductors. 6. Newton advanced the corpuscular theory of light. 7. The wave can explain the interference of light. 8. He had never thought of the possible errors before he made them. 9. They are supporting these two theories. 10. You should have read this paper by the morning session.

VIII. Make these sentences active.

Model: The article was discussed by the students.
The students discussed the article.

1. This discovery is much spoken about by the scientists. 2. My report will be discussed by the students next Monday. 3. The tests have been performed by the inventor himself this day. 4. The experimental results were analyzed by Professor Boston. 5. Radioactivity was being investigated by the Curies for many years. 6. The presence of radiation had been detected by the researcher before the experiment was over. 7. The seminar on Solid State Physics was held by Russia's Academy of Science last year. 8. The new computer program is being examined by the group of engineers. 9. Solid are characterized by strength and elasticity. 10. These data will have been obtained by him by the end of the week.

IX. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Passive Voice.
1. Information ... by radio. (To transmit) 2. A new kind of invisible rays ... by Rontgen in 1895. (to discover) 3. The efficiency of this device ... next year. (To increase) 4. The engineer ... an interesting problem at the research institute, (to offer) 5. New machinery ... at the plant by the end of the month, (to install) 6. An unusual electric station ... into operation now. (To put) 7. The explanation of this phenomenon ... yet. (To give) 8. Yesterday the results of this experiment ... by the presence of some impurities. (To prove) 9. This engineer ... as an authority in optical electronics. (To look upon) 10. The quality of production ... already. (To increase) 11. Many methods of making and storing electric charges ... during the 18thcentury. (To discover) 12 We ... just ... the tiniest motor. (To show) 13. The discovery of the electrons ... by the discovery of the proton and neutron. (To follow) 14. After the engine ... we could use it. (To repair) 15. What plan ... when the professor entered the lecture hall? (To discuss) 16. The performance of the new computers ... tomorrow. (To demonstrate) 17. At present the sunlight ... into electrical power by special solar panels. (To convert) 18. The robots ... now. (To develop)

X. Choose the Russian equivalents for each English sentence.
1. He was sent for a new equipment. 1. ³ .

2. .

3. .

2. The scientists were offered 1.
new problems for research. .
2.
.
3.
.

3. The conductor is acted upon 1. .
by the field.
2. .

3.
.

4. We shall be reported of a new 1. .
invention.
2. .

3. .

5. They are invited by the professor 1.
to his laboratory. .

2.
.

3. -
.

6. He can be asked to repair an engine. 1. ³
.

2. .

3.
.
7. University research is being 1. -
supported by the Government now.
.

2. -

.
3.
-
.
8. His work has been spoken about 1.
by Prof. Brain. .
2.
.
3. .

9. Dr. N had been answered that 1. , .
question when she came. .

2. , .
.
3. ,
.
10. The invention of steam-engine 1.
was followed by many other
ones. .
2.
.

3.
.

Translate the sentences in the Passive Voice.
1. The temperature of water was raised by heating. 2. The motor must be repaired properly. 3. The experiments are being carried out in the shops of our plant. 4. The temperature has been maintained at the point of 20 degrees since the beginning of the experiment. 5. The first electric cell had been made by 1800. 6. Current electricity was discovered in 1780 by Galvani. 7. Materials can be used according to their electrical properties. 8. New automatic driving systems are being used now. 9. The new apparatus has already been installed in the shop. 10. New models of computers will have been suggested by designers by 2000. 11. A new computer was housed in this laboratory. 12. Transistors may be classified according to the number of elements. 13. The new theory of nuclear physics is often referred to. 14. What new devices are being demonstrated now? 15. The negative results had been obtained before modern equipment was installed. 16. The glass has been used to develop a new class of semiconductors. 17. Computers are being applied on great scale. 18. Helium had been discovered on the Sun before it was found on the Earth. 19. This device is being repaired at present. 20. The problem will be dealt with in the next report.

  1. Choose the English equivalents for the Russian sentences.

1. . 1.The student is asked to make an experiment.

2. The student asks to make an experiment.

3. The student will be asked to make an experiment.

2. . 1. We demonstrated a new device.

2. We demonstrate a new device.

3. We were demonstrated a new device.

3. 1. The programmer will be offered
. to compile a new program.

2. The programmer is offered to compile a new
program.

3. The programmer offers to compile a new program.

4. 1. They must be shown modern
'. computers.

2. They must show modern computers.

3. They are shown modem computers.

5. 1. The speaker is being referred to by
. Professor Brown now.

2. Professor Brown is being referred to by the
speaker now.

3. Professor Brown is referring to the speaker now.

6. 1. The new device will be much spoken
. about.

2. The new device has been much spoken about.

3. The new device is much spoken about.

7. 1. Static electricity produced friction.
.
2. Static electricity produces friction.

3. Static electricity is produced by friction.

8. 1. This discovery has already been
commented upon in several magazines.
.
2. This discovery is commented upon in
several magazines.

3. This discovery was commented upon in several
magazines.

9. 1. The composition of this substance is
. determined.

2. The composition of this substance will be determined.

3. The composition of this substance will have been
determined.

10. 1. Some instructions will be given to
. the engineers by Professor Smith.

2. Some instructions will be given to Professor
Smith by the engineers.

3. Some instructions are given to the engineers by
Professor Smith.

XI. Translate the sentences into English using the Passive Voice. Mind the word order.
1. , . 2. 볿 1895 . 3. . 4. - . 5. . 6. ' . 7. . 8. . 9. ? 10. ?

XII. a) Distribute the following verbs into 3 groups according to the suffixes. The first ones have been done for you:

-en
blacken

-fy
classify

-ize
minimize

shorten, typify, brighten, darken, clarify, identify, justify, simplify, visualize, intensify, energize, stabilize, falsify, mechanize, realize, deepen, humanize, criticize, densify, economize.

b) Translate these verbs. In case of difficulty look them up in the dictionary.



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