Historically ships have played a significant role in the global transmission of infectious diseases. For example, ships can transport infected humans and other vectors, such as mosquitoes and rats, between ports and, therefore (îòæå), Act as a means of international disease transfer.
The International Sanitary Regulations were developed in 1951 to prevent the spread of six infectious diseases - cholera, plague (÷óìà), Yellow fever (æîâòà (òðîï³÷íà) ëèõîìàíêà), Smallpox (â³ñïà), Typhus (òèô) And relapsing fever (âø³íèé òèô). These regulations were revised (ïåðåãëÿíóò³) And renamed the International Health Regulations (IHR) in 1969 and they are in force up till now.
The purpose of the International Health Regulations is to provide security against the international spread of disease while avoiding unnecessary interference with international traffic. International Sanitary Rules are introduced in every country by the correspondent act of the Health Department.
If any foreign vessel does not fulfill Sanitary Rules regime then she can not be detained in the port with the exception of time necessary for compulsory or forced sanitary treatment in case of yellow fever. The vessel can leave the port but during the whole period of voyage she can not call at any other port of the same State Sanitary Rules of which had been broken by her.
Sanitary inspection of the vessels is conducted round the clock at the berth and only in the special cases in the roadstead when there are ill men on board, lack of water, food, fuel, etc.
Pumping out of the ballast waters in the port water area is conducted only with the permission of the Sanitary Service. After washing the holds, water can be pumped out only with the permission of Sanitary Quarantine Service. All Sanitary operations are registered in the special book and Sanitary Certificate is given in case when all requirements are observed.
Isolation of ill persons, prohibition on import or export of certain cargoes, disinfection, and deratisation are maintained in the interests of all countries and nations. It is estimated that 1. 2 million seafarers are employed on general cargo vessels. Many spend months at sea, sometimes in remote regions of the world. On long voyages the ships are isolated communities. Good sanitation conditions on vessels are crucial both to the health of seafarers and to the shipping industry's ability to attract and retain competent employees.
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS:1. Why have the ships played significant role in the global transmission of infectious diseases? 2. What regulations were developed in òèñÿ÷à äåâ'ÿòñîò ï'ÿòüäåñÿò îäèí? 3. List six infectious diseases the International Sanitary Regulations should prevent. 4. Can the ship be detained to the port, if she does not fulfill sanitary rules regime?
|GRAMMAR EXERCISES|||||GRAMMAR EXERCISES|