1. a jury: a body of persons, in the USA and Great Britain, 12 in number, who have to decide the truth of a case tried before a judge. The jury brings in a verdict of guilty (not guilty). The verdict is valid only if the decision of the jurors is unanimous. If not, the jury is dismissed and a new jury is made up. That procedure may be repeated several times until the jury comes to the unanimous decision.
2. Ku-Klux-Klan: a reactionary organization, was formed by Southern planters when slavery was prohibited throughout the United States by the thirteenth (1865) amendment to the Con-
stitution of the USA (which was ratified in 1888. More than 20 amendments have been adopted since that time. The first ten amendments are commonly referred to as the Bill of Rights). Members of the K.K.K. met in secret places. They wore white robes and white masks through which only the eyes could be seen. They lynched blacks on the slightest suspicion without any trial. The organization was so ferocious and aroused such terror and indignation that it was outlawed. But every now and then traces of its activities can be seen even nowadays.
3.Thomas Jefferson:(1743-1826), third President of the USA (1801-1809), drafted the Declaration of Independence, which was adopted and proclaimed on July 4th, 1776 to the whole world that a great new nation was born after a heroic peoples' War for Independence that lasted more than six years. The former 13 English Colonies had won their independence and set up their new United States Government.
4.Yankee:originally, this term meant "a native of New England". During the Civil War, however, the Southerners used it to refer, often derisively, to inhabitants of any Northern States. Nowadays the term is used outside the US to natives of the US. In the South of the USA, it is still used (derisively) to refer to Northerners, and in New England it is still used in reference to Native New Englanders (non-derisively).
5.the distaffside: the female branch in a family as opposed to the male branch. The Executive branch is the legislative body of the government. Here, the distaff side means the women members of the US government, the more sentimental and moralistic part of the staff, who are fond of hurling the phrase "all men are created equal" in order to be brought to the notice of the public.
|By Harper Lee|||||SPEECH PATTERNS|