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Unit 13

Theme: Introduction to Physics

Grammar: Compound nouns

Objectives: By the end of this unit, students should be able to use active vocabulary of this theme in different forms of speech exercises.

Students should be better at solving physics problems.

Students should know the rule of Compound nouns.

Methodical instructions: This theme must be worked out during two lessons a week according to timetable.

Lexical material:: Introduce and fix new vocabulary on theme "Physics".

Discuss in groups "The wonders of physics". Speak about the Newton's laws.

Grammar: Introduce and practice Compound nouns. Revise the use ofCompound nouns.

Introduction to Physics.

PHISICS - The science which treats energy and matter and their relations to each other.

MATTER -Anything which occupies space and has weight. The different kinds of matter, such as wood, air, water, coal, etc., are called substance. A limited portion of matter is called a body.

STATES OF MATTER - Matter may exist in three different states: solid, liquid and gaseous.


1.Solid A solid has a wood, coal, iron,

definite shape and a gold.

definite volume and

offers resistance to

any attempt to change


2.Liquid A liquid has a definite water, alcohol,

volume but no definite kerosene

shape. The shape of a

liquid is the same as

that of the containing


3.Gas A gas has neither a hydrogen, oxygen

definite shape nor a chlorine, carbon

definite volume. Both dioxide.

are determined by the

containing vessel.

NOTE: The term Fluid includes both liquids and gases.

Physical change - is any change in a substance which does not alter its composition.

Illustrations. The bending of a steel spring, the melting of snow, the freezing of water, etc.

Chemical change - is any change in a substance which alters its composition.

Illustrations. The rusting of iron, the burning of wood, the souring of milk, the explosion of gunpowder, etc.

Law of conservation of matter. Matter can be changed from one form into another, but it can neither be created nor destroyed.

Energy is the ability to do work. There are several kinds of energy, such as mechanical, heat, light, electrical and chemical.

Law of conservation of energy. While energy can be changed from one form into another, it can neither be created nor destroyed.

Topical vocabulary

1. create ,

2. destroy

3. ability

4. conservation of matter

5. treat ,

6. matter

7. occupy ()

8. weigh

9. state

10. solid

11. liquid

12. alter ,

13. rust ,

14. sour / s8u? / ,

15. substance

16. conservation

17. destroy

18.composition ,

Ex.1. Read and the text and answer the following questions:

1. What does Physics study?

2. What is Matter?

3. What is Body?

4. What is the difference between substance and body?

5. In what three states may matter occur? Illustrate.

6. State and illustrate two physical changes and two chemical changes.

7. State and illustrate the law of conservation of energy.

Ex.2. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text.

1. Matter is anything which occupies ... and has ....

2. The different kinds of matter, such as wood, air, water, coal, etc., are called ....

3. A limited portion of matter is called a ....

4. A liquid has a definite volume but no definite ....

5. A gas has neither a definite shape nor a definite ....

6. Chemical change is any change in a substance which alters its ....

7. Matter can be changed from one form into another, but it can neither be ... nor ....

Ex.3. Write formal definitions for:

matter, energy, physical change.

Ex.4. Choose the words which best completes each sentence:

Substance, fluid, vessel, matter, solid, property, measured, from.

1.Any object or any material is composed of (1) ___________. The quantity of matter may be (2) __________ by its mass or its volume or its amount of substance.

2.A substance has properties that can be described, e.g. iron, salt and hemoglobin are all (3) __________.

3.Matter with a definite volume and shape is (4) _________. The solid state is of the states of matter.

4.Matter that does not have a fixed shape is (5) __________. The essential (6) ________ of a fluid is its ability to flow along a channel or a tube.

5.A liquid is distinguished (7) _________ a gas by not expanding to fill the containing (8) __________, i.e., it retains its own volume at any given temperature.

Ex.5. Learn word study composition and use them in your speech.

Contain 1. (of a vessel) to hold a substance e.g. the beaker contains three grams of


2. (of a mixture) to possess certain substance e.g. milk contains fat and sugar.

Consist of to be made up of with all the constituents named e.g. water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.

Contrast consist of and contain: concrete consists of stones, cement and water (only these substances are used in concrete).

Concrete constrains a small amount of cement (i.e. only some of the constituents are named).

Include to contain as a member of a class or to contain as a part of a whole, e.g.

1) the metals include copper

2) a switch is included in the electrical circuit.

Opposite include.

Comprise to be made up of; to consist of;

To include in a class or category, to contain as parts of a whole, e.g .: The committee comprises men of different views.

Contrast Include and Comprise: When using "Comprise" all members of the class or category must be stated,

When using "Include" one member is shown to be in the class or category.

Ex.6. Learn following families of words and make up your own examples.

Contain container (bottle, box, etc., designed to contain smth).

Content (The amount which is contained e.g. The vitamin content of Soya bean is high).

Consist Consistency (The degree of thickness or solidity e.g. mix flour and milk to the right consistency).

Include Inclusion, Inclusive (Including e.g. a price inclusive of tax). Opposite "Exclusive" (e.g. the category of non-metals is exclusive of arsenic).


Whole - a peace of matter, object or process that is complete in itself.


The whole of the apparatus used for distillation.

Opposite: part, component, constituent, ingredient, item, member.

Component - is a part of structure or system. e.g.

The components of an electrical circuit include cells, resistors, switches and galvanometers.

Ingredient - is one of a number of substance used to make a mixture.

(The substance are called ingredients before mixing. After mixing they are constituents).

Ex.8. Join each of the following sentences, using either participle I or participle II. | Ex.7.Listening
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