Ex.4. Translate the highlighted word correctly. | Probability of occurence | Ex.4.Listening | Ex.5.Listening | Greek schools of mathematics. | Ex.3. Translate the highlighted word correctly. | Ex.3. Translate the highlighted word correctly. | Analysis incarnate-Leonard Euler. | The basic and new concepts. | Mechanical engineering as a future profession. |

This description of the Mac OS X is drawn from the table below. Write a similar description of Linux.

  1. A) Write a letter in response stating your agreement or disagreement.
  2. Activity 3. Write a summary of the text in English. Use the phrases from the list given below.
  3. And write your own sentences with the same word-combinations,
  4. Answer the questions below.
  5. At the far end of the table, Percy was telling his father all about his report on cauldron bottoms.
  6. At the top table, Professor Dumbledore had straightened up, nodding to Professor McGonagall.
  7. B) Roundtable Session

Mac OS X is a Unix-based operating system designed for use on Apple Mac computers. It includes memory-protection, pre-emptive multitasking and symmetric multiprocessing support. Graphics are provided by a graphics engine known as Quartz. It has advanced-PDF standards support, OpenGL and Quicktime integrated into the OS. The operating system features are accessed through a graphical user interface called Aqua.

Mac OS X Linux
type Unix-based Unix-based
computer AppleMac 1 wide variety
features memory-protection, Variety of
pre-emptivemulti Distribution kits
tasking, symmetric available
multiprocessing
support
Graphics engine Quartz XFree86
Standard support advanced-PDF, OpenGL, Quicktime
User interface type GUI command line, GUI
User interface Aqua KDE, Gnome
Source code notavailable Freely available
availability

LINUX

Linux has its roots in a student project. In 1992 , an undergraduate called Linus Torvalds was studying computer science in Helsinki, Finland. Like most computer science courses, a s big component of it was taught on (and about) Unix. Unix was the wonder operating system of the 1970s and 1980s: both a textbook example of the principles of operating system design, and sufficiently robust to be the standard OS in engineering and scientific computing. But Unix was a commercial product (licensed by AT & T to a number of resellers), and cost more than a student could pay.

Annoyed by the shortcomings of Minix (a is compact Unix clone written as a teaching aid by Professor Andy Tannenbaum) Linus set out to write his own 'kernel' - the core of an operating system that handles memory allocation, talks to hardware devices, and makes 20 sure everything keeps running. He used the GNU programming tools developed by Richard Stallman's Free Software Foundation, an organisation of volunteers dedicated to fulfilling Stallman's ideal of making good software that 25 anyone could use without paying. When he'd written a basic kernel, he released the source code to the Linux kernel on the Internet.

Source code is important. It's the original from which compiled programs are generated. If you do not have the source code to a program, you can not modify it to fix bugs or add new features. Most software companies will not sell you their source code, or will only do so for an eye- watering price, because they believe that if they make it available it will destroy their revenue stream.

What happened next was astounding, from the conventional, commercial software industry point of view - and utterly predictable to 40 anyone who knew about the Free Software Foundation. Programmers (mostly academics and students) began using Linux. They found that it did not do things they wanted it to do - so they fixed it. And where they improved it,

they sent the improvements to Linus, who rolled them into the kernel. And Linux began to grow.

There's a term for this model of software development; it's called Open Source (see www.opensource.org/ for more information), so Anyone can have the source code - it's free (in the sense of free speech, not free beer). Anyone can contribute to it. If you use it heavily you may want to extend or develop or fix bugs in it - and it is so easy to give your fixes back to 55 the community that most people do so. ;

An operating system kernel on its own is not a lot of use; but Linux was purposefully designed as a near-clone of Unix, and there is a lot of software out there that is free and was designed to compile on Linux. By about 1992 , the first 'distributions' appeared.

A distribution is the Linux-user term for a complete operating system kit, complete with the utilities and applications you need to make it do useful things - command interpreters, programming tools, text editors, typesetting tools, and graphical user interfaces based on the X windowing system. X is a standard in academic and scientific computing, but not 70 hitherto common on PCs; it's a complex distributed windowing system on which people implement graphical interfaces like KDE and Gnome.

As more and more people got to know about Linux, some of them began to port the Linux kernel to run on non-standard computers. i Because it's free, Linux is now the most widely- ported operating system there is.

6. Re-read the text to find the answers to these questions.

a) Match the terms in Table A with the statements in Table B.

2. . : ShT211.............................................................................................................. 2

- 2............................................................................................................................... 2

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzyWL1LTlq4(The Queen of Mathematics - Professor Raymond Flood)................................................................................................................................. 15

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2HJcWg1Moo (Beauty and Truth in Mathematics and Science)............................................................................................................................................... 22

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSxqpaCCPvY (Mathematics Gives You Wings) 23

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_x65OJU8Uq4 (Introduction to Higher Mathematics - Lecture 2: Introduction to Proofs)...................................................................................................... 27

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMC0iaz6bac (Mathematics Distance Learning - MathHelp.com - 1000+ Online Math Lessons) ................................... ............................................... 30

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ueeViKEcRtY (Surprises in Mathematics pt1of2) 32

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxgH5ykGwdQ (Philosophy of Mathematics: Platonism)............................................................................................................................................................ 35

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NX9YbtYJZ8Y (Elementary Mathematics (K-6) Explained 0: Introduction)................................................................................................................. 37

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZaRCvc9cqY (Mathematics) ......................... 41

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YZXtvJP130s (What is Function? - Concepts of Function in Mathematics).................................................................................................................................. 42

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cy-8lPVKLIo (History of Mathematics) ......... 46

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1N4w4m7VtUU (It's The Mathematics - Beautiful (Official Video))................................................................................................................................. 50

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jremlZvNDuk (Michio Kaku: Is God a Mathematician?)............................................................................................................................................................ 52

Follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMIjt3EajM4 (Computation and the Future of Mathematics)...................................................................................................................................... 55

Table

I. A type of software development where any programmer can develop or fix bugs in the software

II. The original systems program from which compiled programs are generated

III. A complete operating system kit with the utilities and applications you need to make it do useful things

IV. A standard distributed windowing system on which people implement graphical interfaces

V. An organisation of volunteers dedicated to making good software that anyone could use without paying

VI. The core of an operating system that handles memory allocation, talks to hardware devices, and makes sure everything keeps running

b) Mark the following statements as True or False:

a. Linux was created in the 1980s.

b. Minix was created by a university student,

c. Linux is based on Unix,

d. Minix is ??based on Unix,

e. Linux runs on more types of computer than any other operating system.

Grammar: Non-finite form of the verb: Participle II.

The form of Participle II is regular verbs by adding -edor -dto the Infinitive and the past participle of irregular verbs

It uses:

As an adjective; stolen money

To form the perfect tenses / infinitives and participles and the passive voice: he has seen, it was broken, to have loved.

The participle II can replace a subject + passive verb as the participle I can replace subject + active form: She enters. She is accompanied by her mother./ She enters, accompanied by her mother.



Unit 12 | Ex.8. Join each of the following sentences, using either participle I or participle II.
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