Greek schools of mathematics.
Great minds of Greece such as Thales, Pythagoras, Euclid, Archimede, Appolonius, Eudoxus, etc. produced an amazing amount of first class mathematics. The fame of these mathematicians spread to allcorners of the Mediterranean world and attracted numerous pupils. Masters and pupils gathered in schools which though theyhad few, buildings and no campus were truly centres of learning. The teaching of these schools dominated the entire life of the Greeks.
Despite the unquestioned influence of Egypt and BabyloniaonGreek mathematicians, the mathematics produced by the Greeks differed fundamentally from that which preceded it. It were the Greeks who founded mathematics as a scientific discipline. The Pythagoreanschool was the most influential in determining both the nature and content Greek mathematics. Its leader Pythagoras foundedacommunity which embraced both mystical and rational doctrines.
The original Pythagorean brotherhood (c. 550-300 B. C.) was a secret aristocratic society whose members preferred to operate from behind the scenes and, from there, to rule social and intellectual affairs with an iron hand. Their noble born initiates were taught entirely by word of mouth. Written documentation was not permitted, since anything written might give away the secrets largely responsible for their power. Among these early Pythagoreans were men who knew more about mathematics then available than most other people of their time. They recognized that vastly superior in design and manageability Babylonian base-ten positional numeration system might make computational skills available to people in all walks of life and rapidly democratize mathematics and diminish their power over the masses. They used their own non possitional numeration system (standard Greek alphabet supplemented by special symbols). Although there was no difficulty in determining when the symbols represented a number instead of a word, for computation the people of the lower classes had to consult an exclusive group of experts or to use complicated tables and both of these sources of help were controlled by the brotherhood.
Ex.1. Choose a,b,c or d.
1. Who produced an amazing amount of first-class mathematicians?
a) Great minds of Greece.
b) Great minds of Mediterranian world.
c) Great minds of Babylonia.
2. Who influenced Greek mathematics?
a) Egypt and Fromce b) Egypt
c) Egypt and Babylonia d) Babylonia
3. What did the Pythagoreans represent instead of a word?
a) number b) hieroglyph
c) symbol d) figure
4. What did the people of the lower classes use for their communication?
a) coordinate system b) complicated tables
c) book d)"Pythagorean" theorem
5. What did Pythagoras community embrace?
a) property b) numeration system
c) mystical and rational doctrines d) real number
Ex.2. Choose the title of the text according to summary.
a. Great minds of Greece
b. Numeration system
|Ex.5.Listening|||||Ex.3. Translate the highlighted word correctly.|