VI. ² . | VII. ò. | VIII. ˲ . | . . | ֲ (14 ). | Ҳ Ҳ | -Ͳ в ˲ | | в˲ | Բֲ в˲ |

˲Ͳ Ҳ.

  1. BB.1.2
  2. I. .
  3. I.
  4. II. ί ò
  5. j - 1
  6. P
  7. VI.1.

. , , , (, , ) , - , .

, . - - . . ( ) . , .. , (10-9).

, , . , .

() (n). , . , . , .

3 :

). '- ()

= 8.

Cr, W, V, Mo, Nb .

n = 1/8 x 8 + 1 = 2


). ().

= 12. Ag, Au, Pt, Cu, Ni, Al, Pb .

n = 1 / 88 + 1 / 26 = 4


). ().

= 12. Be, Mg, Cd .


n = 1 / 6x12 + 1 / 2x2 + 3 = 6


:

).

a = b = c, ? = ? = ? = 90o

c

b

a

).


a = b ? c, ? = ? = ? = 90o

c

b

a

)

a = b = c, ? = ? = ? ? 90o

b

, . ³ ﳺ.

г - . 3-4 , - 2 .

, - .

(, - , .) . , , , . - , . 糳.



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