A public manager cannot pursue a leadership approach independent of existing policy. Fortunately, such policies are usually (and necessarily) vague, giving a manager some flexibility in establishing a mission, in setting goals, and in achieving them.
Having established mission and goals, the manager may still need some new policies. For example, when the state of Washington developed its new welfare, training, and employment program, it designed one that actually required new federal legislation. If given a choice, however, most public managers prefer to function with existing (albeit inadequate) legislation, rather than open their agency to additional legislative scrutiny and perhaps to legislation that creates as many new constraints as opportunities.
Similarly, adopting a leadership strategy does not mean that the agency head can ignore administrative systems. They are critical for any organization. But they do not come first. Rather, as the line units answer their headquarters' question, "What resources does your unit need to achieve your objectives?" headquarters can begin to provide those resources, including the supporting administrative systems.
But to make the existing administrative structure achieve the policy, a public administrator needs a leadership strategy.
(Abridged from: Behn, Robert D. Leadership Counts, pp. 207-208).
Gorbachev entered Communist Party work as a bureaucrat at age 24. He became chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet in October 1988.
Gorbachev then introduced a presidential system that culminated in the new office of President of the USSR established in March 1990. The new presidency was created by a simple amendment to the Soviet Constitution of 1977, the fourth Soviet constitution.
Gorbachev established an unusual and unwieldy legislative structure. In place of the bicameral Supreme Soviet that had been created by Stalin in 1937 but had exercised extraordinary little political authority, Gorbachev established a large Congress of People's Deputies of 2,250 members elected for five-year terms. The Congress, in turn, was to elect the two chambers of the Supreme Soviet, the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities, each with 271 members. In contrast to the Supreme Soviet of 1937-1989, which met for only about one week of the entire year to approve policies already decided, the new legislative bodies were to hold both spring and autumn sessions of several months' duration. The Supreme Soviet was subordinate and accountable to the Congress of deputies, but it elected the USSR Supreme Court and appointed the Procurator General, the highest legal officer of the government.
Gorbachev's legislative creation proved to be cumbersome and soon it started to lose legitimacy.
As the principal Soviet executive and head of state, Gorbachev was unable to gain adequate control over the central government although he often presided over parliamentary sessions. He was also ineffective in attempting to abrogate laws and acts of republic authorities.
By late 1990 Gorbachev found himself the target of attacks from both the conservatives and the democratic reformers and finally was given up by them and replaced by Boris Yeltsin.
(Abridged from Michael Curtis. Introduction to Comparative Government, pp.350-351)
Ex. 1. Which words can you derive from the following? | Information search | Models of decision-making | Language Study | Pre-discussion | E. Additional Reading | F. Discussion | Discourage | Ex. 1. Which words can you derive from the following? | C. Reading |