²˲ֲ ϲղ ϲ?

  1. Present Simple
  2. SNW-
  3. )
  4. . .
  5. .
  6. .

, , . , . , .

( civilis - ) : 1) , ; 2) . . , . . - .

. (1822-1885) (1869) - . . ( - ), , , . , . .

. , , . ³ 12 - : , , , , - . , , . . , , . ³ .

³ . . ³ , , , . - , , - ( ), . , , , , - . , , ' .

. . (1880-1936). ³ XIX . - , , .

, , , - , , , , -, . , . , , . . : , , - , , - . 䳺 . , , . 1000 . , 900 , . , - .

. (1889-1975), . , , , . . ' , . 21 .

. , . , , ³ , , . , , ( ) . , , . , . , , , 볿, . , . , . , 㳿. , - , .

. , , .

̲

................................................. ............................. 1

I. ֲò .................................................. ........... 2

1. ʲ ?

' ? ............... 2

2. ʲ вͲ ˲ ֲò ? ..................................... 5

3. ʲ ֲ ֲò? ................................................ 6

4. ֲò ˲ ʲ ? .................................................. .................................... 7

5. ֲò ? ..................................... 9

5.1. ߪ ? ....................... 10

5.2. ʲ ' ? .................................. 12

5.3. ? ......................................................................................................14

6. ʲ Ҳ ? ......................... 15

7. ߪ ˲ Ҳ? .......................................................................................................16

I I. ֲò . Ͳ ֲòͲ в 1 - ˲........ 18

1. ʲ ? .......................... 18

2. ʲ Ͳ ֲò в . ? .................................................. .......................................... 19

3. ʲ Ͳ ֲò в . ? .................................................. ............................... 21

4. ʲ Ͳ ֲò в . ? .................................................. ............................ 23

5. ʲ Ͳ ֲί в .? .................................................. ................................... 26

6. ֲò? ................... 28

7. ʲ Ͳ ֲò в . ? .................................................. .................................. 29

I I I. ֲò Ҳ.................................................. ..... 33

1. ֲò? ............... 33

2. IJު ? ................. 35

3. Ҳ ?............................................................................38

4. ֲ ֲ ? ............. 44

5. ʲ ϲ в ? ....................................... ................... 45

I V. ֲͲ ........................... 48

1. ̲ ֲ ? ....................... 48

2. ʲ ֲ ? ......................................... 50

3. Ѳ' ? .................................................. ....... 53

4. ֲ- ? .................................................. ............................... 56

V. ֲò Ͳֲ.......................................... 60

1. ֲ Ͳֲ ʲ ֲ? ....................................... ................................... 60

2. Ͳֲ? .................................................. ........................... 63

3. IJު ˲ Ͳֲ? ............ .64

4. ʲ Ҳ в ˲

? ............................................... .......................... 67

5. ʲ ϲ Ҳ IJҲ ˲? ʲ ˲ в? ............... 68

6. ʲ в ˲? .............................. 71

7. ʲ в ֲ? ................................... 76

8. ֲ ˲? ........................................ 80

9. ʲ Ͳ ˲Ҳ? ............................ 82

10. ʲ Ͳ ˲? ................ 84

VI. ֲ ֲ Ͳ ............................................. .......................86

1. ߪ ֲ ? .......................................................................................................86

2. ʲ в ֲ вҲ? ......................................................................................................88

3. ʲ Ͳ ? .......................................................................................................90

4. ֲ Ͳ ʲ .......................................................................................................94

VII. ֲò ϲ............................................. 97

1.

λ? .................................................. ....................................... 97

2. ϲ? .................................................. ............................... 101

3. ̲ в , в Ҳв? ......... 102

4. ²˲ֲ ϲղ ϲ? .................................................. ............................... 105

̲.................................................. ................................ 108



ϲ? | 1. ' 㳿 . ̳ 㳿 .

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