|1.||necessity (circumstantial)||+ / -||You have to follow a number of rules when entering these commands.|
1. Have to can be used in all forms (present, past, future).
2. The difference between must and have to is that with must the speaker is giving his own feelings, while with have tohe is just giving facts.
3. Must not and do not have to are completely different. "You must not do something "means" it's necessary that you do not do it ". When" you do not have todo something "means" it is not necessary to do it; you do not need to do it ".
Вправа 6. Прочитайте і переведіть наступні пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на значення модального дієсловаhave to і форму інфінітива після нього:
1. You do not have to push buttons; these actions occur under the direction of the program you are using. 2. If the program is designed to be sold commercially, the documentation will have to include directions for the user to install the program and begin working with it. 3. You have to remember which entity (set of fields) you described as "left" and which ones as "right". 4. You will not have to compete with other users to gain access to the system. 5. Because of its cost, new information had to be stored in appropriate archives and libraries for use by others.
|1.||planned action or agreement||+ /?||Old PCs are to be replaced next month.|
|2.||prohibition||-||You are not to start working without antivirus prescan.|
|3.||necessity (the result of orders or instructions)||+ /?||You are to turn off the device at the end of work.|
|4.||unavoidable events||+ /?||What is to happen to the system?|
Perfect infinitive after be to can express a planned or agreed action which did not happen.
Вправа 7. Прочитайте і переведіть наступні пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на значення модального дієсловаbeto і форму інфінітива після нього:
1. An alternative way of expressing the instructions is to use mnemonic codes. 2. In industrial situations, the ability to inspect and, if necessary, reject quickly is desirable if further errors are to be prevented. 3. One of the main objectives of research and development in this field was to provide techniques and equipment capable of helping to control this "information explosion". 4. An alternative to bit slice microprocessors for complex systems is to use several microprocessors together. 5. Zip drives are not to be confused with zip files.
Переклад пасивного стану | Важкі випадки перекладу пасивного стану | форми інфінітива | Незалежний причетний оборот | II. Функції герундія в реченні | III. Герундій в складі присудка | II. Незалежні герундіальний обертів | CAN - be able to do smth. / Be capable of doing smth. | MAY - to be allowed (permitted) to do smth. | Design for Decision |