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форми інфінітива

  1.  Amp; && 155. Що таке Форми в WORDe і як вони створюються?
  2.  Amp; 64. Виявлення та облік дітей, які залишилися без піклування батьків. Форми влаштування дітей, які залишилися без піклування батьків.
  3.  III. Методичні вказівки для студентів заочної форми навчання з виконання контрольної роботи
  4.  IV. ФОРМИ ПРОМІЖНОГО І ПІДСУМКОВОГО КОНТРОЛЮ
  5.  IX. Правила складання комерційного акта і акта загальної форми
  6.  А) давньоіндійські форми релігії (Вєдізм, індуїзм, буддизм);
  7.  А. Реформи
 Indefinite Active Passive  Висловлюють дії, одночасні з действіемглагола-присудка.
 to write  to be written
Continuous  to be writing  -------
 Perfect  to have written  to have been written  Висловлюють дії, попередні дії дієслова-присудка, переводяться минулим часом.
Perfect Continuous  to have beenwriting  -------

функції інфінітива

 Підмет (перекладається іменником або невизначеною формою дієслова)  It is easier to pull down than to clear. - ламати - Не будувати.To have a good memory is important for anyone who meets people in business. - Важливо володіти хорошою пам'яттю тим, кому доводиться спілкуватися з людьми в бізнесі.
 Складений іменний присудок (іменник + дієслово be + інфінітив) Підлягає може бути виражено іменниками: aim, purpose - мета; duty - борг; task - завдання; method - метод; wish - бажання; plan - план; function - призначення; problem - проблема, задача.Глагол-зв'язка to be або зовсім не перекладається на російську мову, або перекладається словами полягати в тому, що (б), складатися в тому, щоб.  His task is to debug the problem. -його Завдання (полягає в тому, щоб) налагодити програму.
 Складений дієслівний присудок(Перекладається невизначеною формою дієслова)  Because the computer revolution is so new, many effects are still to be discovered. - Оскільки комп'ютерна революція ще так нова, нам ще треба багато чого відкрити.
 Доповнення (перекладається невизначеною формою дієслова)  We want to keep the information about our clients in a database. -Ми хочемо зберігати інформацію про наших клієнтів в базі даних.
 Визначення (перекладається визначальних підрядним реченням, присудок якого має відтінок повинності, можливості або майбутнього часу. Вибір модального відтінку підказується загальним змістом всього предложенія.Інфінітів після слів the first (the second, etc.), the last є визначенням і перекладається на російську мову в той час, в якому стоїть дієслово to be  As this is the robot to be driven by the general public it has on-board sensors to safeguard itself against the commands that could put it in danger.-Так як це робот, яким керуватимуть не- фахівці, у нього є бортові сенсори для захисту від команд, що представляють небезпеку для него.The captain was the last to leave the ship. - Капітан покинув судно останнім.
 Обставина мети (може стояти або на початку або в кінці речення, вводитися спілками in order (to) - для того, щоб; so as (to) -так щоб  (In order) To type letters and files we use a word processing program. -Для того, щоб надрукувати листи і файли, ми використовуємо програму «текстовий редактор»
 Обставина слідства (зі словами too - Занадто; enough - досить) часто при перекладі має модальний відтінок  This metal is too brittle to be hammered. - Цей метал занадто крихкий, щоб кувати його.

Вправа 1. Переведіть такі пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на інфінітив у функції підмета.

1. Today it's common to see terminals that include telephones, PCs and larger computers. 2. To know a foreign language is necessary for the computer specialist. 3. It is important to realize that video RAM (VRAM) must meet higher performance specifications than regular RAM. 4. It is necessary to define the tasks of this program. 5. To help our comrades is our duty. 6. To solve this problem is extremely important. 7. It is important to remember that disk drives are mechanical devices. 8. To introduce a microprocessor that is not downwardly compatible with previous models is very risky. 9. To study this program requires much knowledge. 10. New computer systems have such good audio systems that it is possible to listen to music while you work, have the computer tell you when the printer needs paper, play games that include sound, or compose music on the computer. 11. To explain this simple fact is not so very easy. 12. To obtain these data is necessary for carrying out further experiments. 13. To translate the text without a dictionary is difficult. 14. To train highly qualified programmers is extremely important for the development of computer science. 15. To study this programming language requires much knowledge.

Вправа 2. Знайдіть в наступних пропозиціях інфінітив у функції присудка. Переведіть пропозиції.

1. The purpose of the computer is to transform data into information. 2. Using computers has both positive and negative effects on our lives. Our goal is to take advantage of the positives and either reduce the negatives or deal with their results in the best way for you. 3. The biggest challenge in making a workgroup effective is to ensure that its members can communicate more easily among themselves. 4. One important task performed by the operating system is to control the execution (running) of programs. 5. Information must be relevant, timely, accurate, concise and complete in order to be useful. 6. Procedures are the steps that you must follow to accomplish a specific computer-related task. 7. Computers may displace workers by automating tasks that people used to perform or by enabling fewer workers to perform tasks more efficiently. 8. You can use software to instruct computer hardware to do a variety of tasks that involve processing data. 9. The transistor was to change the way computers were built. 10. The first step in developing a program is to define the program. 11. The communication channels must be as wide - and as clean - as possible to accommodate a large number of complex signals. 12. Virtually all countries have recognized that to be part of the world economy, they must be part of the world communications system. 13. Users can put the information on their Web pages onto the intranet, and all interested parties can access the information, read it, and download it without wasting the paper to copy it, or the time to make and circulate the copies. 14. To read a graphics file, you must use a program that recognizes the file's format. 15. In order to connect a monitor to a microcomputer, you must have a graphics adapter board (also known as a video card).

Вправа 3. Знайдіть і переведіть пропозиції, в яких інфінітив є функцією доповнення.

1. You need to understand some fundamental concepts about how computer systems are set up and how they work. 2. Computers consist of hardware, the physical parts of the computer, and software, the programs that tell the computer what to do. 3. You must transfer the information to a storage device, such a disk drive, if you want to keep the information permanently. 4. Computers also ease your daily activities by brewing your coffee, printing your newspaper, and helping you write your letters and pay your bills. 5. Only in the 1950s it became business to produce and consume computer languages. 6. When a modem attempts to establish a connection, it automatically negotiates the modem on the other end. 7. Windows and the graphical user interface made it possible to create value-added files - spreadsheets with charts, word processing files that used different fonts and sophisticated formatting. 8. Most users want to use applications with which they are already familiar, and there is no reason not to do so in a networked computing environment. 9. Many officials want to ban the Internet entirely, but others insist that doing so would leave the countries technologically hobbled. 10. Perhaps the easiest way to enter data is with the touch of a finger. 11. Pen-based computing is just beginning to gain widespread acceptance. 12. Once the program is complete, it needs to be implemented - installed on a computer and made to work properly. 13. Performance monitors help maximize the system's performance by keeping track of what is happening with the various hardware devices. 14. Although a computer can operate perfectly without a printer, it is certainly helpful to the user to have one.

Вправа 4. Переведіть пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на особливості перекладу інфінітива у функції визначення.

1. The capability to process data can be used in a variety of ways. 2. A useful model to describe the relationship between data and information is called the systems model. 3. Efforts to pack more transistors on one chip have led to such a development as Intel's Pentium Pro microprocessor. 4. Multiprogramming is the capability of a computer to switch between programs requested by different users and to execute the programs concurrently. 5. The instructions to start the computer are stored in read-only memory chips, which are not volatile. 6. When an organization wants to offer communications services to others, it submits a tariff to the government. The tariff is a list of services and charges for the services to be offered. 7. Bandwidth refers to the capacity of a communications channel to carry data or information. 8. Disk drives can store large amounts of data and have the capability to directly access a file or record. 9. Just as CDs have revolutionized the music industry, optical discs have the potential to change secondary storage media. 10. Depending on the volume and type of material to be scanned, you can use drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, and even small handheld scanners. 11. New sound cards even include the possibility to have the computer read a text file to you while you continue working. 12. To test or debug a program, you must create sample input data that represent every possible way to enter input. 13. One program often can not read data created in another program unless the receiving program has the capability to translate the other program's code. 14. In the early days of the PC revolution, the computer placed the means to gather, organize, and publish information into the hands of more people than any other previous publishing medium. 15. CD-ROM provides an excellent way to distribute large amounts of data at low cost.

Вправа 5. Переведіть пропозиції, в яких інфінітив виступає в функції обставини.

1. Because computers have moved into society so rapidly and so completely, you need basic computer skills just to pursue your career goals and function effectively in society. 2. You need computer literacy, sufficient computer knowledge to prepare you for working and living. 3. Today's complex computer programs, such as Microsoft Word, consist of many separate programs that are designed to run together. 4. In California, for example, a forest ranger uses an electronic spreadsheet to analyze data concerning endangered animal populations. 5. A database program creates an electronic version of a card file - and the program gives you the tools you need to organize this file and to retrieve information. 6. Mainframe computers are large, expensive computers designed to meet a large organization's computing needs. 7. High-level languages ??were developed to make programming available to most people. 8. To be useful, information must be relevant, timely, concise, accurate and complete. 9. The first computing device could have been as simple as a set of stones used to represent bushels of wheat or herds of animals. 10. To make computers more user friendly (easier to work with), companies developed graphical user interfaces. 11.Computers that use artificial intelligence will have some attributes associated with human intelligence, such as capabilities to decode and respond to natural language (a human language such as English), to reason and draw inferences, and to recognize patterns in sensory input. 12. To interpret the incoming information properly, each computer needs to know whether the other computer is using even parity or odd parity. 13. Minicomputers are smaller than mainframes but still large enough to meet the computing needs of a medium-sized or small organization. 14. To link two computers through the telephone system, a hardware accessory called modem is necessary. 15. To use a bulletin board, you use your communication program to call the bulletin board telephone number.

Об'єктний інфінітивний оборот (Complex Object)

Об'єктний інфінітивний оборот - це поєднання іменника в загальному відмінку або займенника в об'єктному відмінку з інфінітивом дієслова, що виступає як єдиний член речення - складне доповнення. Воно вживається після дієслів з широким колом значень, що виражають розумову діяльність; бажання, вимога; фізичне сприйняття; констатацію факту; прохання, заборона; наказ, дозвіл і ін.

 Subject  Рredicate Complex Object
Noun (Pronoun)    expect, assume, think, suppose, know, believe, consider, want, wish  Noun (Pronouns): me, you, him, her, us, them  Infinitivewith -to-
 Noun(Pronoun)  make, see, observe, hear, watch, feel  Noun (Pronoun)  Infinitivewithout -to-
 Engineers Інженери  consider вважають,  computing equipment що компьютернаятехніка to make production processes more effectiveробить виробничих ний процес болеееффектівним
 I Я  have never heardнікогда не чув, щоб  herона sing that song.співала цю пісню

Запам'ятайте значення дієслів, що вводять складне доповнення:

assume - вважати, думати desire - хотіти, бажати

believe - вважати, думати require - вимагати

consider - вважати, думати wish - хотіти, бажати

choose - вважати want - хотіти

expect - очікувати, сподіватися feel - відчувати

find - знаходити, виявляти hear - чути

hold - вважати see - бачити

know - знати watch - спостерігати

maintain - стверджувати observe - спостерігати

reckon - вважати cause - заподіювати, викликати

suppose - вважати, припускати make - змушувати

take - вважати allow - дозволяти

think - думати, думати enable - давати можливість

show - показувати force - змушувати

prove - доводити ask - просити

Вправа 6. Переведіть пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на особливості перекладу об'єктного інфінітівного обороту.

1. The transmission mode enables the receiving computer to know where one byte ends and next byte begins on the transmission medium. 2. A remote terminal enables the user to operate the distant computer, just as is that person were sitting in front of the distant computer and using its keyboard. 3. A good communication program directs the modem to dial the telephone number needed. 4. Electronic mail (e-mail) enables you to send messages from your computer for access at someone else's computer. 5. Compared to the postal service, electronic mail has many advantages. Many systems let you check to see whether the recipient has accessed your message. 6. International electronic mail systems enable you to find "pen pals" all over the world. 7. Some e-mail systems require you to be part of the same system to receive your message. 8. Facsimile transmission enables you to send an image of a document over the telephone lines to anyone who has a fax machine. 9. Electronic mail, or e-mail, allows messages sent from your computer to be accessed by the recipient at his or her computer, as long as you both have access to the same e-mail system.10. Bulletin board systems (BBSs) enable independent computer users, using telecommunications, to interact with each other through a central contact. 11. Computer networks enable us to conquer another dimension - space. 12. The file allocation table enables the computer to locate data easily. 13. CD-erasable enables users to store, access, and reuse discs in the same way that floppy discs can be used. 14. Computer keyboards include keys that are designed to perform specific tasks. These keys enable the user to perform complex tasks easily when using the application. 15. Optical recognition systems enable the computer "to read" data by scanning printed text for recognizable patterns. 16. A debugger is a system software that helps programmers identify errors. 17. Programming languages ??require certain formalities, and advanced text editors help programmers stick to the proper forms. 18. The event is a message that causes a procedure (subprogram) attached to the object to respond. 19. Fortran enables programmers to describe and solve mathematical calculations readily. 20. System software programs help the hardware components work together and provide support for application programs. 21. Engineers consider computing equipment to make production processes more effective.

Суб'єктний інфітівний оборот (Complex subject)

Суб'єктний інфінітивний оборот (складне підмет) складається з іменника в загальному відмінку або займенника в називному відмінку і інфінітива, що стоїть після присудка

Subject Noun / Pronoun Predicate  Infinitive
   is saidis knownis supposedis believed  
 Computing equipment is known to make production process more effective. -Відомо, Що комп'ютерне обладнання робить похідні процеси більш ефективними. (Комп'ютерне обладнання, як відомо, робить похідні процеси більш ефективними.)
   seemsappearshappensproves  
 The chip appeared to be a crucial development in the accelerating pace of computer technology. - кристали виявилися важливим винаходом в прискоренні розвитку комп'ютерних технологій.
   is likelyis sureis certain  
He is certain to know the password. - Безсумнівно, він знає пароль.

Запам'ятайте значення наступних дієслів, дієслівних словосполучень, що утворюють з інфінітивом суб'єктний інфінітивний оборот.

1. Дієслова, які вживаються в цьому обороті в пасивному стані:

know - знати believe - вважати; вважати

consider - вважати; розглядати find - вважати; вважати

say - говорити suppose - припускати

state - заявляти; повідомляти assume - припускати

report - повідомляти expect - очікувати

think - думати; вважати hear - чути

2. У дійсній заставі вживається тільки кілька дієслів:

seem - здаватися happen - опинятися; траплятися

appear - здаватися chance - опинятися; траплятися

prove- надаватися turn out - опинятися

3. Інфінітив в цьому обороті може також стояти після словосполучень;

be likely - ймовірно; може be sure - безсумнівно; звичайно

be unlikely - навряд чи; не може бути, що be certain - безсумнівно; звичайно

be not likely - малоймовірно

Вправа 7. Переведіть пропозиції з суб'єктним інфінітивна оборотом:

1. The programmer is free to concentrate on the desired result - what the program is supposed to accomplish - rather than worry about the details of how the computer operates. 2. Each new communications technology or application seems to require its own standards. 3. Internet-2 is expected to be deployed around this year. 4. Each new communications technology or application seems to require its own standards. 5. Capturing data at the source minimizes errors because the people who key the data are doing a variety of tasks and are therefore less likely to make errors due to boredom. 6. Processor is known to refer to the processing circuits: central processing unit, memory, interrupt unit, clock, and timing. 7. Many so-called general-purpose computers are known to have features which restrict their use to certain general problem areas. 8. The desk computer is expected to function as your personal librarian, carry out simple optimization computations, control your budget or diet, play several hundred games, etc. 9. Further development of the computer is believed to lead to a situation in which most of the knowledge accepted by mankind will be stored in computers and made accessible to anyone with a home computer. 10. The development of the project appears to be improving. 11. He proved to be an excellent programmer. 12. At present the most important examples of semiconductors seem to be silicon and germanium. 13. The importance of mathematics for all sciences is known to be growing rapidly. 14. The creation of complex modern machines is considered to require a thoroughly developed industry and a high technical level in all branches of industry. 15. The program proved to be a great success.

Прийменниковий інфінітивний оборот "for + іменник (займенник) + інфінітив" (for-phrase) виконує роль будь-якого члена пропозиції: доповнення, частини присудка (в науковій літературі найчастіше функції обставини мети або слідства) і перекладається в залежності від виконуваної ним функції. Може перекладатися підрядним реченням, що вводиться спілками що, щоб, для того щоб, який, підметом якого стає іменник або займенник, що стоїть перед інфінітивом, а присудком - інфінітив.

 The only conclusion for him to make was the following.  Єдиний висновок, до якому він міг прийти, Полягав в наступному.

Можливий переклад цього обороту іменником або інфінітивом:

 It was important for us to solve this problem as soon as possible.  Нам було важливо вирішити цю проблему якомога швидше.

Вправа 8. Переведіть інфінітивний оборот з прийменником for.

1. It is important for the researchers to fulfill their work in time. 2. It takes more time for the reaction to complete at low t. 3. It is impossible for the driver to stop the car at such a high speed quickly. 4. The problem I spoke to you about is too difficult for the designers to be solved in a year or so. 5. Here is one more important point for the speaker to explain. 6. These stars are too remote for the astronomer to answer these questions. 7. He proved that it was possible for the angle to be altered. 8. It is possible for computers to handle all types of information. 9. For a computer to be programmed each problem must be reduced to a series of very simple steps. 10. Two hours were sufficient for the reaction to occur. 11. The language of specialists is often difficult for the layman to read. 12. There is a tendency for the method to be used in all the experiments. 13. It took a long time for mathematicians to realize that not all continuous functions have a derivative. 14. A computer is a suitable machine for them to use in their research work. 15. All the instruments for that computer to work properly have been given.

Вправа 9. Переведіть пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на інфінітив.

1. Engineers try to place greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. 2. Computer is used to convert data into information. 3. It is a very hard undertaking to seek to please everybody. 4. To construct an experiment of this kind seems nearly impossible. 5. We attempted to carry out this investigation. 6. Robots can be used here as these tools are too heavy to handle. 7. Nowadays robots continue to expand their applications. 8. Spray painting is the manipulation of a spray-painting gun over the surface of the object to be coated. 9. The system must tell us if someone tries to get into the system. 10. To perform this work one must have all the necessary equipment. 11. It is too urgent a matter to be postponed. 12. Thomas was the first to focus attention on this type of reaction. 13. Some molecules are large enough to be seen on the electron microscope. 14. In order to demonstrate the effect Table I is given. 15. The important thing is to understand what you are doing, rather than to get the right answer.

Вправа 10. Переведіть пропозиції, визначаючи функцію інфінітива.

1. Four terminals are used by keyboard operators to input information, and the others are used to provide information to senior staff. 2. I need to know more about control of access. 3. In order to avoid accidental or intentional loss of data, only specially authorized personnel may delete data files. 4. The operations are efficient enough to have little effect on the speed of the simulation. 5. Also, the programs to be verified will have to be well-constructed, to make the job easier. 6. This correspondence dealt with books published or to be published. 7. The Nary was too new, too small and not experienced enough to resist the enemy's. 8. A small computer company announced a computer small enough to set on a desktop and powerful enough to support high level language programming. 9. Care should be taken not to view these three methodologies as competitive ones. 10. He felt that the only thing to do was to study their methods and ideas. 11. For him, however, obstacles existed only to be overcome. 12. The system must allow managers to call up data relevant to their needs. 13. I would like to find out what your company requires in terms of protection for your computer system. 14. And to conclude, he is to be highly imaginative too. 15. To solve the problem would justify all the costs.

Вправа 11. Переведіть пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на порядок переведення слів в складному підметі (Cуб'ектний інфінітивний оборот).

1. Many substances are known to dissolve in hot water. 2. Air was considered by the ancients to be an element. 3. Microphone and video camera are known to be used to input data into the computer. 4. The use of robots in assembly is expected to increase because of the high cost of manual labour. 5. Assembly machines are considered to be examples of fixed automation. 6. The real situation is stated to be very complex. 7. The fact happened to become known to everybody. 8. These two methods turned out to be incompatible in effectiveness. 9. The conditions seem to have been poorly chosen. 10. Hardly any aspect of economic life is likely to be unaffected by automation. 11. Benjamin Franklin is acknowledged to be the founder of the theory of atmospheric electricity. 12. He is recognized to have been a great public figure who did as much as he could for the good of his country. 13. Unfortunately this approach is unlikely to be successful. 14. The device known to be built by Charles Babbage is now considered to be the parent of modern computers.

Вправа 12. Переведіть пропозиції, що містять складне доповнення (Об'єктний інфінітивний оборот):

1. He wished the matters to be taken seriously. 2. It causes the monitor to indicate computer failure. 3. It is usually rather difficult to get nitrogen to combine with other elements. 4. You may lead a horse to the water but you can not make him drink. 5. Flexible automation allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after another. 6. Did you hear him go out? 7. The way the situation developed made the government change their tactics. 8. This program will enable scientists to perform remote geological experiments. 9. He expected everyone else to do all the work. 10. Experience shows this strategy to have produced better results than more traditional algorithms. 11. We know metal to conduct electricity. 12. For 2200 years all the mankind believed Euclid to have discovered an absolute truth. 13. The whole world knows Lobachevsky to have strictly demonstrated and explained the principles of the theory of parallel lines. 14. We know many Byelorussians to have taken part in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-78. 15. Optical recognition systems enable the computer to "read" data by scanning printed text for recognizable patterns.

ПРИЧАСТЯ (THE PARTICIPLE)

Причастя є неособистої формою дієслова і має ознаки як прикметника (іноді прислівники), так і дієслова. В англійській мові є такі форми причастя:

   Participle I  Participle II  Perfect Participle
 Active  writingasking    having writtenhaving asked
 Passive  being writtenbeing asked  writtenasked  having been writtenhaving been asked

Participle I вказує на те, що дія, виражена їм, відбувається одночасно з дією, вираженим глаго-присудком: reading - читає, читаючи.

Дія, виражене Participle II, Завжди носить пасивний характер, т. Е. Направлено на предмет або особа, з яким пов'язана ця форма: written- написаний.

Perfect Participle вказує на закінченість дії по відношенню до основного дії в реченні, вираженої присудком: having written - написавши; having asked - запитавши.

Participle I и Perfect Participle в пасивному стані вказують на те, що дія, виражене причастям, спрямоване на обличчя або предмет з ним пов'язаний: being written - будучи написаним; having been written будучи (вже) написаним.



 Важкі випадки перекладу пасивного стану |  Незалежний причетний оборот

 Переклад пасивного стану |  II. Функції герундія в реченні |  III. Герундій в складі присудка |  II. Незалежні герундіальний обертів |  CAN - be able to do smth. / Be capable of doing smth. |  MAY - to be allowed (permitted) to do smth. |  SHOULD / OUGHT TO |  HAVE TO |  WILL / WOULD |  Design for Decision |

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