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If + Past Simple + Future in the Past
I/we/you/they he/she/it introduced /installed/lost I/we/you/they he/she/it would part/conclude /note

Language Work

(II) If-clause (If I determined ..., it would occur ... )


Future in the Past +   if + Past Simple
I/we/you/they he/she/it would part/conclude /note I/we/you/they he/she/it introduced /installed/last

For example:

If I doped donor atoms at one end and acceptor atoms at the other end of a silicon crystal, it would have both P-type and N-type regions and there would be a junction between them.

If free electrons and holes moved in a controlled manner, they wouldn't wander freely in the lattice.

I wish I determined...

wish + Past

For example:

I wish I knew these parameters.

(=I don't know them)

I wish I could gain higher results. (I can't)


If I were/if I was

I wish it were/I wish it was

For example:

If I were you, I would correct this test. / If I was you, ...

I wish it were / was possible.

(III) If-clause (If I had designed ..., they would have set up ... )

If + Past Perfect + Future Perfect in the Past
I/we/you/they he/she/it had introduced/ had installed/ had lost I/we/you/they he/she/it would have parted/ have concluded/ have noted


Future Perfect in the Past +     if + Past Perfect
I/we/you/they he/she/it would have parted/ have concluded/ have noted I/we/you/they he/she/it had introduced/ had installed/ had lost

For example:

If I had determined a fault, I would have corrected it. (but I didn't determine it)

If one region had lost a positive charge, the other region would have gained it. (but it didn't lose a positive charge)

I wish I had designed...

wish + Past Perfect

For example:

I wish I had constructed my replica. I would have used it yesterday. (but I didn't construct it)

I wish I had corrected some measurements in my laboratory work. I would have obtained a higher result. (but I didn't correct them)


1. Wish somebody something, but hope somebody do something.

For example:

I wish you an easy test.

I hope you get perfect results in your mathematical test.

2. Wish + Past(We regret something. The meaning is present.)

For example:

I wish you didn't reach critical values. (you reach them)

Mike's going to overcome all difficulties. I wish I was going to do it too.

Wish + Past Perfect(we regret about something in the past)

For example:

I wish I had simulated this object with the help of a new computer. (I didn't simulate)

I wish I hadn't replaced parts in the machine. (I replaced)

3. I wish I could(do something) = I regret that I cannot do it.

For example:

I'm sorry I can't help you. I wish I could calculate the resistance in this task. (but I can't)

I wish I could have (done something) = I regret that I could not do it.

For example:

I heard you bought a new computer. I wish I could have gone to look at it. (but I couldn't go)

4. I wish (somebody) would (do something)

(we would like something to happen)

For example:

I wish my computer would outstrip my friends' ones.

I wish somebody would help me to measure current in my laboratory work.

1. Fill in the table.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Translation Transcription
determination determine determinate determinative - определение [dI‚tq:mI′neISqn]
diffusion       диффузия [dI′fju:Zqn]
  dope     добавлять  
gain         [geIn]
junction       переход, соединение  
  measure       [′mqZq]
plane       плоскость  
region       область, зона  
value       величина, значение  

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. If I (know) the concentration of impurities in the solution, I would dope it.

2. Unfortunately I forgot your e-mail address when I went on holiday. If (I/have) your e-mail address, (I/send) you a message.

3. If you were me, how you (measure) the height of a potential barrier?

4. If I (have) a chance, I (eliminate) a high density area.

5. I'm tired. If (I/not/be) tired, I (do) all measurements.

6. The scientists were not very busy last year. If (they/be) busy, they (not/obtain) so many substances in scientific laboratories.

7. I wouldn't mind helping you in the laboratory if the results (be) better.

8. I (not/experiment) with this matter if I (be) you.

3. Write a sentence with if ... for each situation.

1. The process of rock age determination is too complex, so I'm not going to do it. I'd ... if ...

2. I can't meet you tomorrow. I have to install new equipment in the laboratory. If ...

3. I don't see you very often because I'm designing a new installation. If ...

4. We can't determine the plate current of a triode. We have to measure the temperature of the cathode and the voltage on the plate. If ...

5. P-type and N-type regions and a junction between them appeared in a silicon crystal because donor atoms were at one end and acceptor atoms were at the other end of it. If donor atoms ...

6. I didn't determine voltage because I didn't know current strength and resistance. ...

7. You didn't replace parts of this machine - that's why it doesn't work now. ...

8. Kate didn't obtain correct result because she didn't change a sign in a fraction. ...

4. Write your own sentences beginning I wish...

1. (somewhere you'd like to be now - in a computer laboratory, at the university, on a tour etc.) I wish I ...

2. (something you'd like to have - iPad, PSP, iPhone etc.) I wish I ...

3. (something you'd like to be able to do - to fix a computer, to drive a car, to program in C++ and Java easily etc.) I wish I ...

4. (something you'd like to be - a scientist, a software developer, a system administrator etc.) I wish I ...

5 . Write sentences beginning I wish...

1. I don't have a notebook (and I need it). I wish ...

2. I have to install a new computer at the office tomorrow (but I'd like to stay at home). I wish ...

3. I can't obtain perfect results in physics (and I'd like to). I wish ...

4. There was a job of specialist in the sphere of computer security advertised in the newspaper. I decided not to apply for it. Now I think I was wrong. I wish ...

5. When at school, I didn't learn to program in C++. Now I regret this. I wish...

6. I've bought a lot of hardware to my computer and now I'm short of money. I wish...

6. Put in wish(ed) or hope (d).

1. I ... you a good luck at your entrance exams.

2. Enjoy your new creative work. I ... you have a great time.

3. Good bye. I'm going on business. I ... you all the best.

4. I heard you designed a new device, I ... all your dreams come true.

5. I ... you luck in buying a new computer. I ... it works well for you.

7. What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with I wish ... would ...

1. You are in N.Y. on business now. You want to fly back home as soon as possible, but there is a flight delay because of the weather.

You say: I wish the weather would ...

2. You are waiting for results of the experiment. You're getting impatient.

You say to yourself: I wish ...

3. You're looking through a lot of advertisements in order to find a job. Employers won't take you.

You say: I wish somebody ...

4. You can hear a perforator working. It's been working for a long time and you're trying to study.

You say: ....

For the following situations, write sentences with I wish ... wouldn't ...

5. You have been doing monotonous work at your job for years. You think you are worthy of a better fate. You say to yourself: I wish I ...

6. Your friend does everything very slowly. You don't like this. You say to your friend: I wish you ...

7. Jack gives his password to unknown people. This annoys you. You say to Jack: ...

8. Are these sentences right or wrong? Correct them where necessary.

For example:

I wish my colleague would be here now. -

I wish my colleague were here now.

1. I wish you would select the model of a computer at last.

2. I wish I would have more free time to mend all home appliances.

3. I wish our TV set would be bigger.

4. I wish the circumstances would change.

5. I wish you wouldn't be on business most of the time.

6. I wish our equipment wouldn't be so old.

Act as an interpreter. Translate the description of N-type and P-type- semiconductors given by your group mates from English into Russian. | Translate the following international words without a dictionary.

Language Work | Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. | Use your own ideas to complete the sentences. | Match the following sentences with their translations. | Semiconductors of N-Type and P-Type | Read the text again and select from the multiple choice the only solution to each problem. | The P-N Junction | The P-N Junction | Joining P- and N-Type Germanium | The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction |

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