Due to the identical structure of speech organs of people of different places and nationalities all languages have sounds of identical types. But being identical typologically these sounds are not identical articulatorily. The differences in the articulation of sounds in different languages are explained by the fact, that each language has it's own tendencies and most of articulation, which form the articulation basis of the language.
The articulation basis of the languageis all the articulatory habits, characteristic of all the native speakers of the given language. (will be on the exam, learn by heart!)
The main peculiarities of the English articulation basis are: 1) the tongue is broadened and flattened; 2) the tip is slightly hollowed out and slightly drawn back from the teeth; 3) the lips are neutral, they are deliberately neutralized and spread, the upper lip is tense.
|Near the teeth reach, apical position of the tongue||Tends to move to the upper front teeth, it's dorsal position||Tip of the tongue|
|Tends to occupy more retraced, more flat and lower positions, than in the articulation of the Russian consonants||<--||The bulk of the tongue|
|Voiceless consonants in final positions are strong, while voiced consonants are weak and partially devoiced, e.g. kept, bag||Voiced consonants are impossible in final positions and voiceless consonants are weak (sonorants - exception)||Voice/voiceless distinction|
|In the articulation of the similar English sounds the protrusion does not take place [o,o:,u,u;]||The lips are deliberately protruded and rounded, especially [a,o]||Lips|
|The tongue is slightly drawn back||The tongue occupies mostly the front part of the mouth||The place of the tongue|
|Although not very tense objectively, English vowels seem tense in comparison to Russian vowels, because in English an unstressed vowel does not always differ in quality from a stressed one, e.g. [ou] open, window||In Russian an unstressed vowel is always short, lax and different in quality from the same vowel in a stressed syllable||Tension|
|Vowels differ in length. There are historically long and short vowels. The length of vowels can differenciate words, e.g. bit - beat||In Russian vowels differ in quality, but not in quantity. They may be pronounced in a longer way for purposes of emphasis, but the length of vowels doesn't differenciate words with different meanings||Difference between vowels|
The Subject of Phonetics | The Branches of Phonetics | The articulatory classification of English vowels | The Phoneme, its Definition, Aspects and Functions | Lecture 17.10.11 | The Phoneme Theory | Methods of Phonological Analysis | Allophonic Variation | Sound Interchange | Syllable as a phonetic and phonological unit |