1) a) the soft palate or velum; b) the alveolar ridge; c) the front of the tongue; d) the hard palate; e) the lower lip.
2) The vocal cords (in the larynx); the soft palate, the tongue, the lips (in the mouth cavity).
3) The hard palate; the alveolar ridge; the teeth.
4) The tongue; the palate; the teeth; the lips.
5) The alveolar ridge; the hard palate; the soft palate with the uvula.
6) The blade with the tip; the front of the tongue; the back of the tongue.
7) In the larynx. The vocal cords can be brought together and when the airflow is forced between them, they vibrate.
8) The airflow passes from the lungs into the wind-pipe, then into the larynx, where the vocal cords are situated. The airflow makes the vocal cords vibrate and voice is produced.
9) Consonants and vowels.
10) Vowels are voiced sounds produced in the mouth with no obstruction to the airflow while consonants are produced with some obstruction formed in the mouth cavity.
11) There can be a complete and an incomplete obstruction. A complete obstruction is formed when two speech organs come in contact and thus block the air-passage through the mouth. An incomplete obstruction is formed when an active speech organ is held so close to a passive speech organ that the air-passage gets narrowed, or constricted but is not blocked.
12) The phoneme is the smallest language unit which has a set of distinctive features and helps to make words and their forms.