There are 2 types of allophones:
The actual speech sounds are allophones or variants of the phoneme. Allophones of one and the same phoneme are phonetically similar. They don't contrast with one another.
F.e. English phoneme [d] when not affected by the articulation of the preceding or following sounds is a plosive, fore-lingual apical, alveolar, lenis stop. This is how it sounds in isolation or in such words as door, darn, down, etc., when it retains its typical articulatory characteristics. In this case the consonant [d] is called the principal allophone.
Principle allophones don't undergo any distinguishable changes in speech. They aren't positionally determined. They are most representative of the phoneme as a whole.
Principle A. = stressed vowels + consonants before them.
Subsidiary allophones presupposes quite predictable changes in the articulation of allophones that occur under the influence of the neighbouring sounds in different phonetic situations.
Subsidiary allophones consist of 2 types:
a) combinatory - occur as a result of assimilation [eitθ] close to dental /t/ for /θ/ is interdental.
b) positional - traditionally used in some fixed positions. The clear and dark variants /l/ and /t/
Билет 1 | DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEM OF PHONEME. THE DEFINITION OF PHONEME | Aims of communication and phonetic means in formal and informal communication. | Semantic and enclitic approaches to rhythmic units of speech. Analyze the two approaches in the following phrase. "Mr. 'Wilson is in the 'hospital till 'six o'clock". | Tendencies in the incidence of stress in English. | The units of rhythm in prose and verse. | Functional or | Consonants | Практическая часть | National standards |