I. Language and Extralinguistic World 2

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Unlike the brief translation the complete translation is directed on careful reproduction of all the components of the informative order of the source language text in the units of the target language. The complete translation can be carried out by the different ways, but most widespread is the following: literal or word-for-word, semantic and communicative methods.

The word-for-word translation consists of word-for-word reproduction of the source language text in the units of the target one with saving the order of the elements following. Essentially, the word-for-word translation is comparatively rare used for the communicative purposes and has usually the exceptionally scientific area of distribution.

The semantic translation supposes complete passing of the contextual meaning of the elements of the source language text in the units of the target language. The process of the semantic translation is natural co-operation of two strategies that are the strategy of orientation on the method of expression, accepted in the target language, and strategy of orientation on saving the features of the initial form of expression. The semantic translation, as a rule, is used to the texts that have high social and cultural status such as important historical documents, works of literature, unique patterns of epic literature etc. It is requested at passing the texts that belong to the type of technical instructions, most scientific publications and legal documents.

The communicative translation supposes the choice of such way of initial information transference, which results in translating the text with faithful influence on a recipient. The main object at such method of translation is not only linguistic composition of the source language text but its substantial, emotional and aesthetic meaning. Thus, unlike functional translation, the communicative translation does permit neither abbreviations nor simplifications of the initial material.

Choosing one or another method of translation, a translator besides all the other circumstances follows the understanding that any method of translation does rare operates in the real process of translation. As a rule, the most of the difficult texts are translated with the use of different methods, however, one of them is the leading method and it determines the character of relations between a source and target language text on the whole, dictating the terms of source language division and determination of the units of translation as well as the choice of translating devices by which a source language text is directly transformed into the target language one in translation.

Translation can be carried out both in written and oral form.

Written translation is the type of translation, at which an original text and its translation come forward as the fixed texts to which a translator can repeatedly apply deepening understanding of the source language text and correcting the select variants of translation. A similar situation allows reaching the greater exactness of the source language text reproduction, giving a possibility to a translator to use different dictionaries and reference books, to appeal for the help to the specialists.

There are substantial distinctions between translation which consists of the written transference of meaning from one language into another, and interpretation which consists of transference of meaning in verbal form or in the form of gestures (in the case of sign language) from one language into another one.

During the verbal translation a source language text and the target language one come forward in the unfixed (verbal) form that predetermines the singleness of perception of segments of the original text by a translator and impossibility of subsequent comparison or correction of the translation after it was uttered.

Coming from how translating practice considers passing the process of translation, it is possible to come to conclusion, that interpretation is a subspecies of translation. However, it comes obvious in practice that the separate approach corresponds to each of these two types of translation.

In the process of translation independently of its form (verbal or written), it is possible to mark out the following basic stages:

1) Decoding or understanding (reading, listening) of a text in the source language.

2) Directly translation.

3) Encoding (recording, pronouncing) of a text in the target language.

To decode the meaning of a text a translator must first define the unit of translation that is a segment of a text which can be a word, a phrase, one or several suggestions that will be considered as the unit of a meaning. Quite often translation is required even at the level of phonemes (below than level of word), and at a level higher than indention.

Thus, the process of translation is the complex cogitative operation.

To decode the complete meaning of the source language text, a translator must consciously and methodically interpret and analyse all its features and peculiarities. This process requires deep thorough knowledge of grammar, semantics, syntax, idioms and other subtleties of the source language and its culture. A translator must have the same deep knowledge in the target language in order to be able to encode the meaning of the text faithfully. It is where the practical distinctions between translation and interpretaion are clearly seen. Translators know that a written text of sufficient complication must be translated by the native language spaker. The point is that not only specialist but also any well-prepared reader can easily recognize target language translation on the mother language executed by a foreigner.

An opposite picture is observed in interpretation of a text of sufficient complication or in simultaneous or consecutive translation. The task of an interpreter is to completely pass the ideas expressed by a talker in the target language. This phenomenon is usually explained by that fact that while interpreting into non-native language an interpreter automatically uses the constructions learned by heart. When interpreting into native language an interpreter is often lost in the variety of possible variants and forced to stop on the decision distant from optimal one. Thus, it is extraordinarily important to know the object, which is considered and spoken about in the text.

Establishment of relations of equivalence between a source and target language text is the purpose of translation. To say in other words, both texts carry the same communicative information. In spite of the most different obstacles that a translator has to overcome, translation is considered to be faithfull and successful if it corresponds to two criteria:

1) Exactness or authenticity. It is characterized how precisely translation passes the meaning of the source language text, for example with adding or subtracting anything from the meaning, strengthening or loosening some elements of it.

2) Transparency. The question is in what measure tha native language speaker perceives translation as not such, but as an authentical text in the target language, that is corresponding to the grammatical, syntactic and idiomatic norms of language.

Translation which corresponds to the first criterion can be named the faithful translation; translation that answers the second criterion is characterized as the idiomatic translation.

The used criteria of estimation of authenticity of translation differentiate depending on the subject of a text, exactnesses of content of an original, type, function and use of a text, its literary qualities, social and history context.

The criteria of transparency estimation of translation seems to be more simple: non-idiomatic translation cuts an ear, and in the process of word-for-word translation that is carried out by the many machine translation systems often turns out to be a nonsense.

Nevertheless, in definite situations a translator can consciously carry out the word-for-word translation. For example, the translators of the fiction literature and religious texts often maximally adhere to the source language text. For this purpose they intentionally stretch the scopes of a translating language, producing the non-idiomatic text.

Translation in itself is difficult as a type of activity. Moreover, in practice a translator must overcome the obstacles which complicate the process of translation.

It is possible to mark out the following problems of translation:

1) A source language text is not final and is re-written when translation is done.

2) A text is written illegibly.

3) A text contains orthographic errors.

4) A text is a fragment only.

5) A text is poorly made.

6) Absent references in a text (for example, a translator must translate titles or signatures to the absent pictures).

There can be defined several essential problems related to the language:

1. Dialectal words and neologisms.

2. The unexplained acronyms and abbreviations.

3. Incomprehensible jargon or slang.

4. Extremely specific nationally biased lexicon.

Consecutive translation is one of the types of interpretation or verbal translation, when a talker pauses in speech from time to time, as this interruption are necessary for a translator to interpret what was said. These pauses, as a rule, are short, as a professional translator usually formulates translation during sounding of speech already and when pausing pronounces it. Consecutive translation requires the special and serious teaching and training.

Verbal translation can be executed consistently after pronouncing a statement by the speaker or synchronously and simultaneously with the speech of a speaker.

The translation of conversation or bilateral translation is the special type of verbal translation, when a translator alternately uses each of the languages as a language of translation. There are the also mixed types of translation such as verbal translation of a written text (or unseen translation) and written translation of verbal speech.

Verbal consecutive translation is usually used for conducting measures with relatively bit of participants. The given type of translation is very effective at the mobile character of communication with a plenty of movements, for example, during work on industrial objects, negotiations with subsequent excursions etc.

It is acceptable to define several essential measures that are accomplished by using the consecutive translation:

1. Business negotiations.

2. Telephone negotiations.

3. Seminars, meetings, round tables with a bit of participants.

4. Briefings and press-conferences.

5. Presentations and exhibitions.

6. Festive measures.

7. Conducting excursions for foreign guests.

8. Mounting and tooling of equipment with participation of foreign specialist.

In comparison with the synchronous translation several advantages of the consecutive translation can be outlined:

1. The additional technical equipment is not required, that promotes mobility of a measure.

2. It can be carried out afoot, for example, during work on industrial objects, negotiations on presentations, when accompanying delegations.

3. Additional time which can be useful for consideration of an issue appears to be used by participants (for example, on business negotiations).

4. It is enough to attract one skilled translator, unlike simultaneous translation when at least, two simultaneous interpreters are required to attract.

In comparison with the synchronous translation several disadvantages of the consecutive translation can be outlined as well:

a. Conducting a measure takes more time because of pauses on consecutive translation.

b. Possibility of translation into one foreign language, as a rule.

c. The limited number of participants in an action.

Simultaneous translation is one of the most difficult types of verbal translation executable with the use of the special equipment intended for accomplishing it. Owing to the used equipment, a translator carries out translation simultaneously with talker's speech, that's why there is no need pausing to give more time for accomplishing translation to a translator.

The special equipment is the simultaneous translation system that usually is a stationary or demountable booth, where setting of simultaneous translation including two pairs of headphones and microphone for translators is placed as well as set of headphones or portable receivers on the number of participants who needs translation. During translation, a simultaneous interpreter is in the sound-proof and isolated booth in headphones, so as not let his own voice suppress voice of a speaker. With the apparatus of strengthening, translation is given for the listeners in their headphones. With the use of technologies of the simultaneous translation the measures with participation of large number of people are organized as well as conferences, seminars, presentations etc. conducted in conference halls or audiences.

In practice there are three varieties of simultaneous translation, that are related to to different types of translation:

1. Orally simultaneous translation when a simultaneous interpreter perceives continuous speech of a speaker through headphones and accomplishes translation by blocks, as far as receiving information. It is the most widespread and most difficult case of translation.

2. Simultaneous unseen translation with preliminary preparation or without it. A simultaneous interpreter gets the text of speech of a speaker in advance and accomplishes translation in accordance with the given materials, making corrections where necessary in the course of speech. A simultaneous interpreter following by the speech of a speaker, reads out the beforehand prepared text, and, if necessary, makes corrections, if a speaker digresses from a primary text in the course of translation.

In comparison with the consecutive translation such the advantages of the simultaneous translation can be named:

1. Speech of a speaker sounds without pausing. It allows a speaker to keep attention of an audience, to feel the mood and reaction of the listeners.

2. Time of conducting a measure diminishes approximately twice in comparison with the use of consecutive translation.

3. Comfort for participants: mastering a foreign language today is in no rare, that's why the many participants prefer listening lectures in a foreign language in an original, and sudden pausing can annoy them.

4. Possibility of realizing translation simultaneously in several languages.

The simultaneous translation has some disadvantages as well:

1.Two or three simultaneous interpreters are required who equally master the subject of a measure.

2. Higher level of losing information and lesser level of its mastering is typical for simultaneous translation.

Several initial requirements can be demanded form the simultaneous interpreters:

1) Free mastering a foreign and native language.

2) Speech competent and the well articulated phonetically.

3) Rich vocabulary in both working languages.

4) Knowledge of stock of steady constructions and clichés and ability to find them quickly, that is automation of language means of expression.

5) Ability to translate both into the native and foreign language correctly.

6) Quickness of reaction.

7) Good operative memory.

8) Ability to concentrate.

9) Mental and physical endurance.

The particular place belong to the machine translation that is the process of translation of texts from one source language into another by the special computer program. Instead of machine translation the word automated is sometimes used, but the meaning of both these notions is the same. However the term automated translation has completely another sense, as automated translation program simply helps a man to translate texts.

The automated translation supposes such forms of co-operation:

1. The partly automated translation, for example, the use of computer dictionaries by a translator.

2. Systems with the division of labor: a computer is trained to translate the phrases of the hardly set structure, but does it so that it is not necessary to correct mistakes after it and everything that is not laid into the scheme lies with a translator to be done.

Translation quality relies on a subject and style of the source language text. Machine translation of fiction literature texts practically always turns out to be of unsatisfactory quality. Nevertheless, it is possible to receive translations of acceptable quality that requires just some corrections for technical documents at availability of specialized machine dictionaries and setting the system to the peculiarities of texts of one or another type. The more formalized is the style of source language ducuments, the better quality can be expected. The best results when using machine translation can be attained for the texts written in technical (different descriptions and guidances) and official-business style.

Thus, the successive division of translation, that takes into account the most substantial differences in the process of translation, it is possible to present as the following chart:

  Translation as a means of communication  

XVI. Machine Translation   Man-made Translation  

  Oral Translation     Written Transaltion  

Simultaneous Translation     Consecutive Translation   Special Translation   Literary Translation

V. Basic Theories of Translation

Translation is a linguistic process, interlingual transformation or transformation of the text of one language into the text of the other language. It is a means to provide possibility of intercourse between people talking in different languages.

The theory of translation is the logically grounded model of the bilingual communication or a theoretical part of linguistics of translation.

There are several stages in the development of the theory of translation:

1) The translators properly were the first theorists of translation who aspired to generalize the own experience and the experience it their colleagues by a profession activity. In early translations an aspiration of the literal copying of the source language text prevailed, but it often lead to the situations when the target language text was not good for its understanding.

2) At the end of the XIX century the translators began to formulate some similarity of the normative theory of translation, setting a row of claims, which a good translation must meet.

3) The science of translation covers any conceptions, positions and observations that concerns to the practice of translation, methods and terms their realization, different factors that influence on it directly or not.

In wide sense a term the theory of translation is opposed to the term the practice of translation and coincide with notion of the science of translation at such understanding. In the narrow sense the theory of translation includes only the theoretical part of the science of translation and is contrasted to its applied aspects.

The variety of the process of translation results not only in appearing a plenty of different theoretical models, but it also sets a question about a necessity to distinguish the general theory of translation, theories of the separate types of translation and partial theories of translation. All that characterizes communication and the process of translation on the whole, regardless of terms of their realization, genre character of texts, contacting languages is important for the general theory of translation.

The general theory of translation is engaged in translating universal words. In this relation the science about translation follows the linguistics in which a question about the study of universal vocabulary lately became very actual. If linguistics attributes all the phenomena that are present in all the languages of the world to the universal vocabulary, then the science about translation considers the phenomena and categories what are typical for all types of translation to be a universal vocabulary.

The translating universal words are well known. They include equivalents, the methods of translation, information stock, components of act of communication etc. All this is necessarily distinguished in any type of communication with the use of the two interlocutors that master different languages. The translating universal words are added by the phenomena that are typical for some processes of translation, for example, transmission of author's style in the literary translation etc. and they become the determining words during the selection of the theories in science about translation that generated by the specific ontology of an object.

The general theory of translation is based on the data that are got from the observation of the object in its different displays. These displays can be accidental, untypical, and they are not taken into account then. These displays can repeat themselves, to be typical, and then a theory considers them appropriate on the whole or for that or the other type of translation in particular.

A great deal of time an axiom that interlingual transformations can be carried out only by a man was not called in question. Scientific and technical progress brought substantial clarification in this statement that both a man and a machine could accomplish interlingual transformations. Thus the first basis for classification of translation appeared. It says that the basis for translation is mechanism of interlingual transformations.

The theory of machine translation was found on this basis. The theory of machine translation passed the stormy period of its development. For the short deal of time it did a great contribution in the general theory of translation, as well as the existent theories of translation carried out by a man. It was the machine translation where a necessity to consider the analysis of the source language text and synthesis of the target language one separately was exposed. Unfortunately, unlike the translation carried out by a man, the machine translation is not faithful and exact one.

The theory of machine translation still exists as something whole. It is related to the stability of terms of the process of machine translation and low competence of machines. It's quite another matter if a translator gets down to work. A translator often has to work under various conditions. Depending on the situation a translator have to translate in the oral or written form and perceive the source language text with own eyes and ears. It is not difficult to notice the difference that exists between written translation not limited by time when a translator can use dictionaries and various reference books and oral translation which is accomplished in the extreme functioning conditions of mental processes of a translator. The difference that exists between written and oral translation, related to the conditions of functioning the mental processes, which are the basis for classification of translation that is carried out by a man.

Of course, it is impossible to say that the conditions of functioning of the mental processes coincide in any type of oral translation. In the consecutive translation there is a great loading on the memory while in the simultaneous translation it is necessary to be able simultaneously to listen and to speak. However, in any type of oral translation the mental processes of a translator work in a situation close to stressing, when a necessity to do a great deal of entrance information and constantly make decision in very short time appears. The difficult terms of work put the skills and abilities brought to perfection in the first place but assume inaccuracies in the stylistic registration of translation.

The special conditions of functioning of the mental processes attract attention of researchers to the special problems, which make a separate independent theory that is the theory of oral translation.

The theory of oral translation covers questions general for all the types of verbal translation. The specific problems of the successive, simultaneous or unseen translation which are considered in the proper theories, unchangingly concern the functioning of the mental processes, sign method of translation and other questions that do not overstep the limits of the theory of oral translation. The problem of genre character of a text and transmission of stylistic nuances of the source language text does not stand before the oral translation, as well as before the machine one. There is no sense to translate the works of fiction literature orally as even experienced translators are not able to store the invariant and the translation stops to be a translation properly. The problem of functioning the skills, abilities and auxiliary devices of translation such as system of records, technical equipment etc. is put to the first place. The following division of the theory of oral translation is related exactly to the terms of a translator's work.

It's quite another matter in concern to the written translation. The functioning of the mental processes of a translator takes place in the relatively quiet terms. The theoretical aspect of a translator's work, his ability to estimate and choose language devices correctly, to save style of the source language text is put in the first place in the written translation. Thus, the written translation of the fiction literature differs greatly from the translation of the other texts. The language of the literary works is characterized by the expressive devices, rhythmics of a language, individual style of an author. Passing the expressive language devices and stylistic features more depends on the literary talent of a translator, his feeling of language, than from the automatic skills formed in him.

The translator of scientific material must work differently. In the scientific texts there are a lot of terms, facts that are possible to understand only having the proper preparation. The success of a translator's work in the scientific area is determined by his knowledge, ability to use terminology more than by his translating skills. This is the evidence that the written translation gets its specific only in connection with the features of the source language texts, with the features of the language devices used in them.

The language devices determine the genre character of the texts, which is a basis for classification of the written translation and determines the appropriateness of distinguishing the theory of the literary translation and theory of the special translation as well.

The theory of the literary translation is the oldest of the theories of translation. Even today a lot of authors develop the theoretical statements about translation in the area of the fiction literature, i.e. in the notions and terms of the study of literature. This circumstance is fully appropriate and its result is the wide use of methods of comparative stylistic analysis of the source language text and its translation. The works in the area of theory of translation of the fiction literature did not only contribute in the general theory of translation, but also put the beginning of the development of the general theoretic problems of translation.

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