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Types of Muscle

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There are three types of muscle tissue in the body:

󿼠 Smooth muscle. This makes up the walls of the hollow organs and the walls of ducts, such as the blood vessels and bronchioles. This muscle operates involuntarily and is responsible for peristalsis, the wavelike movements that propel materials through the systems.

󿼠 Cardiac muscle. This makes up the myocardium of the heart wall. It functions involuntarily and is responsible for the pumping of the heart.

󿼠 Skeletal muscle. This is attached to the bones of the skeleton and is responsible for voluntary movement. It also maintains posture and generates a large proportion of body heat. All of these voluntary muscles together make up the muscular system.

Muscles are composed of individual cells, often referred to as fibers because they are so long and thread- like. These cells are held together in bundles by connective tissue. Covering each muscle is a sheath of connective tissue. These supporting tissues merge to form the tendon that attaches the muscle to a bone.

  1. Find in the text the following word combinations: основні характеристики м'язів; здібність скорочуватись; призводити рухи скелету; судини та внутрішні органи; підтримувати поставу; головне джерело тепла тіла; три типа м'язової тканини; утворювати стінки порожнистих органів; управлятися мимовільно; штовхати матеріали крізь системи; міокард серцевої стінки; бути прикріпленими до кісток; виробляти велику кількість тепла; складатися з окремих клітин; покриття кожного м'яза; формувати сухожилля; прикріплювати м'яз до кістки.
  2. Complete the following sentences:
  1. Muscles shorten and ....
  2. Constantly contracted muscles ...
  3. Muscular contraction is the main ... of..
  4. The long ... compose....
  5. The wide muscles lay...
  6. Short muscles are...
  7. Muscles allow...
  8. Smooth muscles make up...
  9. Cardiac muscles are ... for the pumping..
  10. Skeletal muscles are attached...
  1. Answer the questions:
  1. How many skeletal muscles are there in the human body?
  2. How many groups are the muscles subdivided into?
  3. What kinds of muscles compose the walls of the cavities?
  4. What are muscles attached to?
  5. What is the function of the smooth muscles?
  6. What are cardiac muscles responsible for?
  7. What are muscles composed of?
  8. What is the covering of each muscle?
  1. Correct the following statements :
  1. The muscles form about 50% of the body weight.
  2. Muscles are subdivided into four groups.
  3. The short muscles compose the free extremities.
  4. There are a lot of short muscles in the human body.
  5. Hollow organs are brain, liver & spleen.
  6. Smooth muscle operates voluntarily and is responsible for digestion.
  7. Cardiac muscle can be found in any part of the organism.
  8. Skeletal muscles are attached to the ligaments & cartilages and are responsible for involuntary movement.
  1. Translate the following sentences into English:
  1. В тілі людини є три типа м'язів.
  2. Коротких м'язів не дуже багато, це лицьові м'язи.
  3. Гладенькі м'язи складають стінки кров'яних судин.
  4. Перестальтіка це хвильові рухи, які проштовхують матеріали через системи.
  5. Серцеві та гладенькі м'язи управляються мимовільно.
  6. Скелетні м'язи підтримують постать та виробляють тепло.
  7. Кожен м'яз вкрито шаром з'єднувальної тканини.



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