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The General Properties of a Verb

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Verbs express events, processes, states, actions, activities, performances and achievements. It is an open class of words. Any word can be verbalized. Morphologically, syntactically and semantically it is a heterogeneous class of words, the most developed one, with the largest paradigm. The verb is a macrosystem of categories(Person. Number, aspect, tense, correlation, voice, mood) which are microsystems. Each category is based on the opposition of forms, these oppositions being binary and ternary; privative and equipollent (read :: reads; read :: have read; read :: is read; read :: is reading, went :: goes :: shall go, etc.).

The verb can be described in terms of the field theory. It has a field-like structure with a nucleus and a periphery. Its nucleus carries the actional, processive and statal verbs with a full-fledged, developed paradigm, verbs with complete predication, notional verbs with a full nominative value. We see here transitives, intransitives, semantically dual verbs, functioning both as transitives and intransitives ( fly, wear, close, develop, eat, wash, etc.). The peripheryis composed of semi-notionals with a partial nominative value. These are the verbs with a defective paradigm and an incomplete predication (link-verbs: be, seem, appear, happen, get, grow; modal verbs: must, may, can, should, will; modal equivalents: be to, have to, have got to, etc., auxiliaries: Do, have, shall, should, will, would, get, go: Everything has been goingjust great. The house gotburnt); verbs with the relational semantics (include, belong, refer, resemble); verbs with phrasal semantics (begin, stop, continue, come, go, get, stand: He wentrunning, He camerunning, He gotgoing), Substitutes replacing notionals (Do you want to go? Yes, Ido).All these verbs have no nominative value, they can not predicate by themselves.

We find among verbs those with post-positions ( to put off, to get off, etc.).Notional verbs are apt to be easily functionalized (I have cometo understand you at last), Which shows English to be an analytical language. Some verbs are used to impart dynamics to a sentence ( Try and doit! I can not go and shoothim!). As compared with Russian, English is twice or thrice as verbal.



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