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Complete the text with words from the box.

  1. A letter that is unclear and incomplete may lead to a delay in fulfilling a request.
  2. Be Clear and Complete
  3. Before you start learning the theoretical material make sure that you know the given below words. Transcribe and translate them.
  4. Complete the text with words from the box.
  5. Complete the text with words from the box.
  6. Complete the text with words from the box.

original logical interpretation author quotations

present tense scientific indirect speech

A written summary starts with a lead, including title, _________1, text type, and the main idea of the text. It has a clearly arranged structure and is written in a ________2, chronological, and traceable manner. In contrast to a résumé or a review, a summary contains neither ___________3 nor rating. Only the opinion of the _______4 writer is reflected - paraphrased with new words without _________5 from the text. Unlike a retelling, a summary has no dramatic structure and is written in ___________6 or historic present. In summaries only _________7 is used and depictions are avoided. Summaries of books or dissertations present the major facts in common _________8 language.

4. Compare the summary with the original text. Underline the parts of the text that appear in the summary (the first part is underlined as an example for you). Discuss with your partner what is included into the summary and what is left out. Write out the synonyms and synonymous expressions that are used in the summary instead of the following: "to excel," "researchers," "economic factors," "a higher need," "seek approval by conforming."

Are Firstborns Better?

Freud, Kant, Beethoven, Dante, Einstein and Julius Caesar - what do they have in common? All of these eminent men were firstborn children. Although many later-born children also become famous, certain studies hint that a firstborn child is more likely to excel. For example, more firstborns become National Merit Scholars, earn doctor's degrees and rate mention in Who's Who.

Researchers suggest several explanations for the higher achievement of firstborns. Some believe that the reason is simply that firstborns are more likely than other children to attend college. They argue that economic factors alone could account for this difference, although firstborns typically get high grades before college as well.

Others suggest that firstborn children have a higher need to achieve (Rosen, 1964). This need to achieve may be an outcome of the special relationship between firstborn children and their parents. Firstborns have their parents' exclusive attention and seem to interact more with parents than other children (Gewirtz & Gewirtz, 1965). Parents of firstborns also seem to expect more of them (Hilton, 1967). As a result, firstborns may seek approval by conforming to adult standards, including standards of achievement.

Whatever the reasons, firstborn children do tend to be more conforming, shyer, more anxious than their siblings, − and more likely to outdo them.

(Charles G. Morris, Psychology)


According to Charles G. Morris in his discussion of firstborns in Psychology, the first child in a family is more likely to have achieved excellence than are those children born later. Scientists explain this in a number of ways. The firstborn has a greater chance to receive higher education, if only financial elements are considered. Another suggestion is that these children have a deeper motivation for achievement possibly resulting from the fact that they relate to adults, particularly their parents, who have very high expectations of them. Thus, firstborn children might gain acceptance through conformity and meeting standards set for them.

5. Read a passage from the article "Teaching vocabulary in colour" by Anna Gnoinska and its summary Evaluate the summary according to the described above requirements and try to improve it. Add appropriate first and concluding sentences and insert one reminder phrase into the middle of the revised summary.

Teaching Vocabulary in Colour

Colours have a tremendous influence on human health and the psyche. A lack or overabundance of certain colours can cause physical or emotional disorders Exposure to colour vibrations is used in the treatment of a number of diseases and mental problems. The colour of the classroom walls, curtains, or even the teacher's clothes can either soothe or irritate students.

Colour is also an important tool in visual thinking. It separates ideas so: they can be seen more clearly; it stimulates creativity and aids the memory! Colour captures and directs attention. Even conventionally outlined notes can benefit from colour coding; maps ... and most expressive drawings are considerably more effective in colour (Williams 1983:107).

It is not unimportant, however, which colours we use to stimulate students. To benefit from using them, we should know what possible power they have over our students. Then we will not expose learners to calming vibrations if we expect them to be active or to intellectual vibrations if we expect them to use their imagination. According to Muths (1994) and Mertz (1995), the most commonly used colours have the following properties.

Green symbolizes balance and agreement with nature and other people. It soothes the nervous system. It gives hope and peace of mind. It is said to be favoured by quiet, patient, open-minded traditionalists. Too much green, however, evokes sadness and hidden fears.

Blue is a calming and cooling colour. It is relaxing for the eyes and cheering for the mind. It promotes intellectual processes; that is why people who favour it are clever and industrious but not always creative. They are exceptionally just, dutiful, and loyal.

Yellow, when bright and sunny, reinforces the nervous system and helps in analytical studies. It symbolizes wisdom, shrewdness, ambition, and intellectualism of the left brain. People who like yellow are happy optimists but also critical thinkers who will eagerly defend their views. They often lack creativity and imagination. Pale shades of yellow, on the other hand, mean unfavourable emotions like envy or a tendency toward plotting and intrigue.

Black represents mystery and the unknown. It protects people's individualism and makes them seem more unusual and interesting. People who like black are profound explorers and original thinkers. ...

Red is the most exhilarating colour and stimulates vivid emotions of the right brain. It promotes health, energy, and interest. In some people, however, it may evoke aggression.

White stands for youth, cleanliness, and naiveté. People who like white strive for perfection. They are submissive idealists whose dreams are difficult to fulfill. ...

It is a well-known fact that students recall words better when they read the definitions and draw their own pictures to represent them than when they read and write the words and the definitions. ... Using colour in a number of ways produces similar results: students concentrate better, spend more time processing a word, and find learning more interesting and pleasant. Colour is useful in learning and revising, as well as making students and teachers aware of the way they approach certain tasks.


Colours are considered to have a great impact on humans, both positive and negative. Colours may stimulate creativity and cause irritation. Colour coding facilitates perception. The teachers should know the possible influence colours have over students. Otherwise, learners may be exposed to calming colours at the time they need to be active, or to the colours promoting thinking when they are expected to use their imagination. The best known colours have the following properties. Green is a symbol of consensus with nature and other humans preferred by quiet, sincere people of traditional views. Blue is a cold, refreshing colour. It facilitates cognitive processes. The people who like this colour are hardworking but do not have enough imagination. They are exceptionally just, dutiful, and faithful. Black, which is usually associated with the mysterious and unknown, is favoured by people with original thinking. While red symbolizes health, energy, and sometimes aggression, white stands for youth, cleanliness, and idealism. Colour is useful in the learning process, because it helps to better memorize new words.


Useful Phrases for Longer Summaries | Research Paper Abstracts

Луцьк 2010 | Передмова | English as the World Language of Research and Education | Comprehension check. | Paragraphs and Paragraph Division | Citations | Divide the following text into paragraphs with appropriate indentation. | Steps in Summarizing | Read the two abstracts with identified moves and answer the questions that follow. | Conference Abstracts |

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