Text 13

( - 4 ). New Frontiers in Chemistry

Twenty-first-ccntury chemistry has narrowed into units such as instrumental analysis, biochemistry, chemical engineering, and colloids. Chemistry has progressed from an assembly of facts to a statement of laws, and thermodynamics of chemical reactions to a study of atomic sfructurc. It is also an age of practical applications which contribute to an improved standard of living. Man has learned to surpass nature as he explores the methods by which living matter is produced. To create a better environment, empirical studies of the past have been replaced by an assurance that any type of matter may be synthesized or analysed with time and effort.

The great frontiers of our world and our universe that await the explorer and the pioneer of the beginning of the twenty-first century are scientific rather than geographic. The past achievements of chemistry, the "miraclc" drugs, the superior explosives, the new plastics, the synthetic fibres, the improved gasolines, and the rocket fuels, have received great publicity, but much remains to be done. New types of matter, new applications of known principles, and - most important of all - further correlation and inteipretation of known facts and the development of new and more general principles await the coming of newrscientific workers with energy, talent, and good training. In addition, there arc great opportunities for those who would apply to the benefit of mankind die findings of science. Cures for cancer and other human ills arc needed, as are new materials for construction to meet the needs of our daily life, better fabrics, stronger metals and plastics, and better sources of energy. As we live in the space age, new chemical problems confront us, and the great problem of the chemistry of die living cell is still with us, the promise for the future is unlimited.


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1. Chemistry has made a great progress from an assembly of facts to a statement of laws. 2. Twentieth-century chemists did not think about practical applications of their achievements. 3. In the ancient time there was no assurance that any type of matter may be synthesized or analysed with time and effort. 4. New geographic frontiers await the explorer. 5. Energy, talent and good training are needed for the development of new principles of science. 6. There arc no more great opportunities for chemists. 7. New chemical problems confront us in the space age.

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Section III

Ex. 1. Respond to the statements or questions using the following expressions:as far as I know; as far as I remember, to my mind; it9s hard to tell; if I am not mistaken; to tell the truth.

-To Tell you the truth,

1 do not remember when urea was synthesized. - 1 do not remember it cither.

1.1 did not know that the alchemical period lasted so long. 2. What did Boyle state in his law? 3. When was Daltonvs atomic theory introduced? 4. What country did Fricdcrich Wohlcr live in? 5. What period is considered as the beginning of modern chemistry? 6. What discoveries stimulated the development of chemistry in the 19th ccntury? 7. Sorry to say, but I've never heard about phlogiston before. 8. Do you know how Daltonvs model of the atom looked like? 9. What docs the law of definite proportions state? 10. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?

Ex. 2. Translate the sentences into English.

1. , 쳿 5 . 2. , . 3. , . 4. ', . 5. , , . ? - . 7. ? - . 8. , .

Ex. 3. up short dialogues according to the model.


Model: - A general question. -An Answer (+, -).

- Are you a student?

- Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.

Ex. 4. Give detailed answers to the questions.

1. What do you know about the periodicity in chemistry? 2. How did chemistry change with time? 3. What were the most important discoveries of the 19th century? 4. What can you say about the 20th-century chemistry?

Ex. 5. Discuss the following topics:

1. The Achievements of the Ancient Civilizations.

2. The Principal Discoveries in the History of Chemistry and their Importance.

3. The Twenty-First-Century Chemistry.

4. New Frontiers in Chemistry.


A substance which can not be divided into a simpler one by ordinary chemical methods.

Text 9 | Fluorine | Lesson 10 | Text 10 | Lesson 11 | Fascinating Phosphorus | Modifications of Phosphorus | Lesson 12 | Chemical Symbols for Representing Compounds | Weight of 12 atom of carbon 12 |

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