Text 13 A The History of Chemistry

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There arc five periods in the history of chemistry. The ancient period comprising the older civilizations of China, India, Greece, and their contemporaries to 350 AD developed practical arts as in Egypt, and a philosophical approach to the study of matter as in Greece, where a theory of numbers, an atomic theory, and a theory of five elements, earth, air, fire, water and die quintessence were proposed.

The alchemical period (350-1500), of which the principal goals were an elixir of life and the philosopher's stone by which base metals could be changed to gold, introduced pure substance and improved techniques.

Iatrochcmists (1500-1650) devoted their chemical pursuits to alleviation of disease. During the phlogiston period (1650-1774) men postulated a hypothetical matter whose presence was required for combustion and calcination. Gain in weight by calcination of metals led to a search for a very light material and subsequent discovery of gases, one of which was oxygen, and the answer to the problem. Ibis is the date when modern chemistry begins.

When qualitative and quantitative analysis had identified enough pure substances, inorganic chemistry grew in scope. Oiganic chemistry was little understood until 1828 when synthesis of urea by Fricdcrich Wohler (1800-1828), a German chemist, proved that the "vital force" which was considered imperative to produce compounds that occurrcd in living matter was not needed.

Meanwhile reliable physical and chemical measurement began with the laws of Boyle (1660), Charles (1785), Gay-Lussac (1808) and Dalton (1807). Dalton * s atomic theory (1807), postulated after the laws of the conservation of mass and definite proportions were tacitly assumed, stimulated the 19di-ccntury effort to determine accurate atomic weights, ideas for combination as expressed in valence [5], and the studies of molecular structure until the thrcc-dimcntional models appeared.

Gradual determination of physical properties of the elements indicated a periodicity of property expressed by the periodic law which has withstood the onslaught [6] of the discovery of the subatomic particles which make up the nucleus and outer electrons of the atom.

Words and Word-Combinations to Be Memorized

accurate, AD, ancient, approach, assume, comprise, date, definite, determine, effort, express, force, gain, goal, gold, gradual, improve, inorganic, matter, model, organic, outer, particle, principal, problem, prove, qualitative, reliable, require, stimulate, subsequent, synthesis, technique, there be, until, urea, withstand

Ex. 5. Give the Russian equivalents for the following:

the history of chemistry, an ancient period, comprize, civilization, develop, a philosophical approach to, a theory of numbers, a theory of elements, propose, the alchemical period, the principal goal, base metals, change to, introduce, pure substancc , an improved technique, devote, during the period, postulate, a hypothetical matter, require, gain in weight, the answer to the problem, identify a substancc, synthesis of urea, produce a compound, reliable measurements, stimulate the effort, accurate weight , until, gradual, withstand smth., subatomic particles

Ex. 6. Give the English equivalents for the following:

древній період, в історії хімії, метод вивчення материн, атомна теорія, теорія елементів, теорія чисел, земля, вода, повітря, вогонь, головна мета, перетворити в золото, чисте речовина, вимагати, збільшення ваги, дуже легке речовина, подальше відкриття, сучасна хімія, якісний / кількісний аналіз, визначити речовину, органічна / неорганічна хімія, синтез речовини, довести, отримати з'єднання, надійний метод, закон збереження маси, визначити точну вагу, наступні спроби, нова модель, поступовий, вказувати на періодичність, відкриття частинок, складати ядро, зовнішні електрони

Ex. 7. Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary.

1. There arc five periods ... the history ... chemistry. 2. A philosophical approach ... the study ... matter was developed ... Greece. 3. Alchemists thought that there was a way ... which base metals could be changed ... gold. 4. ... the phlogiston period men postulated a hypothetical matter. 5. Gain ... weight ... calcination ... metals led ... a search ... a very light material. 6. Organic chemistry was little understood ... the synthesis of urea ... Wohler ... 1828.7. Reliable physical and chemical measurements began ... die laws ... Boyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac and Dalton. 8. Subatomic particles make ... the nucleus ... the atom.

Ex. 8. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to different functions of the verb do.

1. Do it as quickly as you can. 2. Do you know when the periodic law was stated? 3.1 can not do it now, 1 must be going. 4. The alchemists did improve techniques during their search of the philosopher's stone and an elixir of life. 5. They do synthesize new materials in their laboratory. 6. Scientists did not understand organic chemistry before the synthesis of urea. 7. He will have done it by 5 o'clock.

Ex. 9. Translate the sentences into Russian.

a) 1. In the period 350-1500 A. D. alchemists devoted their efforts to a search for the philosopher's stone. 2. Our understanding of atomic energy levels is based on modern advances in chemistry. 3. Reliable physical and chemical measurements stimulated the determination of accurate atomic weight. 4. Until the discovery of the subatomic particles, the structure of atoms was not fully understood. 5. These laws (the laws of die Conservation of Mass and Definite Proportions) were an important stimulation for the 19th-century chemistry. 6. The first period in the development of chemistry is the ancient period (until 350 A. D.). 7. There arc five periods in the history of chemistry. 8. Mcndclcycv's law of periodicity of elements has withstood the onslaught of the discovery of the subatomic particles. 9. Five "elements" (earth, air, fire, water and the quintessence) were considered by the ancients as the building blocks of matter.

b) 1. Is your text difficult? - It is easy. 2. Was the philosopher's stone found? - No, it was not. 3. What is this? - It is a text-book. 4. Whose book is it? - It is Nick's book. 5. It is a very interesting phenomenon. 6. It is winter. 7. It is snowing now. 8. It was early morning when wc camc to the laboratory. 9. It is a long way from our hostel to die university. 10. It is believed that Wohler synthesized urea in 1828. 11. During the phlogiston period it was considered that some hypothetical maUer was required for combustion and calcination. 12. It is necessary to know the periodicity in the history of chemistiy. 13. It is never too late to learn. 14. It is chemistry that is my favourite subject. 15. It was Lomonosov who was the founder of Russian physico-chemical science. 16. It was early in the 19th century that Dalton founded his atomic theory. 17. It was after urea was synthesized that the development of organic chemistry was stimulated. 18. It was not the alchemical period which was the shortest in the history of chemistry. 19. It was not until qualitative and quantitative analysis had identified enough pure substances that inorganic chemistry grew in scope. 20. It was not until 1808 that Gay-Lussac's law was postulated. 21. Theirs was a very important discovery. 22. Ours is a most essential science. 23. These arc the latest

journals. 24. Accuratc measurements began with the laws of Boyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac and Dalton. These stimulated the efforts to determine accuratc atomic weights. 25. How can one prepare urea? 26. One can express the idea for combination in valence. 27. Why docs one call Mcndeleycv's law the periodic law? 28. One must clearly understand the idea of ??chemical transformation. 29. One should be accuratc in laboratory measurements.

Ex. 10. Translate the sentences into English.

1. В історії розвитку хімії є кілька періодів. 2. Ще в Стародавній Греції був розроблений філософський підхід до вивчення матерії. 3. Потрібно пам'ятати, що головною метою періоду алхімії був пошук філософського каменя. 4. Вважали, що саме філософський камінь перетворює звичайні метали в золото. 5. Тільки тоді, коли були розроблені методи кількісного та якісного аналізу, стало можливо отримати достатню кількість чистих речовин. 6. Збільшення ваги металів при прожаренні призвело згодом до відкриття газів. 7. Що таке якісний аналіз? 8. До 1928 року органічну хімію мало розуміли. 9. Багато вчених створювали свої моделі будови атомів.

Ex. 11. Answer the following questions:

1. How many periods arc there in the history of chemistry? 2. What arc these periods? 3. What do you know about the ancient period? 4. What were the principal goals of the alchemical period? 5. What was the period of iatrochemistiy devoted to? 6. Why is the period between 1650 and +1774 callcd .the phlogiston period? 7. When does modern chemistry begin?

8. What stimulated the development of chemistry in the 19th ccntury?

9. What investigations led to the discovery of the Periodic Law?

Section II

Упр. 1. Назвіть значення наступних інтернаціональних слів:

instrumental, biochemistry, colloid, progress, fact, thermodynamics, structure, practical, application, standard, method, empirical, pioneer, geographic, plastic, gasoline, rocket, type, principle, correlation, interpretation, talent, energy, to confront, human , construction, limit

Упр. 2. Визначте значення виділених слів з контексту;

1. Twenty-first ccntury chemistry has narrowed into different fields of chemistry such as analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, etc. 2. Why were you absent at the classes, were you ///? 3. Promise little, but do much. 4. One of the most important among the past achievements of chemistry was the discovery of the atomic structure. 5. Chemical engineers 'principal goal is to improve the technology of chemical production. 6. Almost all the students in our group arc of the

same age. 7. To explore the phenomenon is to learn everything about it.

8. Comrade N will replace comrade У while he is away on holidays.

9. Drugs arc substanccs used for medical purposes. 10. In future, oil and coal arc to be replaced by new fuels, i. c., materials for producing heat or energy. 11. Cancer is one of the most serious diseases of the 21st century.

Giosa до тексту:

assembly-збір; statement - формулювання; surpass-перевершувати; create - створювати; environment - навколишнє середовище; assurance - переконаність; frontier - межа; miracle - чудо; superior - кращий; explosive - вибухова речовина; fibre - волокно; opportunity-можливість; benefit-користь; вигода; mankind-людство; cure-ліки; fabric-ткань; cell - клітина

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