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THE LONDON UNDERGROUND

  1.  Impressions of London
  2.  London Museums and Art Galleries
  3.  Shopping in London
  4.  THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
  5.  Underground

The first underground railway system in the world was in London. It was opened in тисяча вісімсот шістьдесят три and ran 4 miles (6,5 kilometers) from the west of London to the City in the east. The first lines were built close to the surface and used steam trains. They then built deeper tunnels and the electric underground railway was opened in 1890. This system was called the Tube, still the most popular name for the London Underground. Some of the tube stations are so deep that they were used as air-raid shelters during the Second World War, when hundreds of families would spend the night in the stations.

One million people commute into central London every day. Sixty percent of these people use the Tube, mainly because the Underground system extends far into the surburbs: the Northern Line, running from north to south, covers 18 miles (28 kilometers); the Piccadilly Line, running from east to west is 47 miles (76 kilometers) long.

Buses in London are not as popular as the Tube because they get stuck in traffic. One of the most popular forms of urban transport in Britain used to be the tram. The most environmentally friendly vehicle is a bicycle. London taxis drive round the centre of the city looking for a customer. Taxis are often called «cab».

Traditional taxi-drivers or cabbies, are proud of the knowledge of London. They have to know every street in the 113 square miles of central London and spend up to four years learning the best routes. To get their licence, they have to pass a series of tests, known as The Knowledge, until they are absolutely accurate in their answers. Because of this long training period, cabbies are often angry that people can drive minicabs without a licence. Minicabs look like normal cars, do not have meters and can not pick up people in the street: people have to phone for one.

5. Прочитайте 4-й абзац і питання до нього. З наведених варіантів відповіді вкажіть номер пропозиції, що містить правильну відповідь на поставлене запитання:

What is the Knowledge?

... The long training period.

... A licence.

... A series of tests.

Варіант 2

1. Перепишіть наступні пропозиції; підкресліть в кожному з них дієслово-присудок і визначте його видо-часову форму і заставу. Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову. У розділі б) зверніть увагу на переклад пасивних конструкцій (див. Зразок виконання 1).

a) 1. Even today Tower Bridge regulates a large part of impressive traffic of the Port of London.

2. Since then the Tower has served as fortress, palace, state prison and royal treasury, now it is a museum.

б) 1. Many great men, including Christopher Wren himself, Nelson and others are buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.

2. For an Englishman, the best of all reasons for doing something in a certain way is that it has always been done in that way.

2. Перепишіть наступні пропозиції; підкресліть Participle I і Participle II і встановіть функції кожного з них, т. е вкажіть, чи є воно визначенням, обставиною або частиною дієслова-присудка. Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову (див. Зразок виконання 2).

The first London Underground map was introduced in 1908.

English people rarely shake hands except when being introduced to someone for the first time.

The working people of Britain have had a long tradition of democracy.

The majority of the British population live in small houses built close together.

3. Перепишіть наступні пропозиції; підкресліть в кожному з них модальне дієслово або його еквівалент. Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову.

What role can museums and art galleries play in the upbringing of children?

You have to be seventeen before you can drive a car.

We may say that the East End is the hands of London.

One must be very careful using the word "subway" in London.

4. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть з 1 по 4 абзаци тексту. Перепишіть і письмово переведіть 4 і 5 абзаци.

TRAINS

Many people in Britain live in a long way from their work. They often travel by train from the suburbs into the town centre to work. These people are commuters. Some people travel more than 200 miles every day and spend up to two hours going to work and two hours going home.

Train tickets may appear to be expensive, but this form of transport is a fast and environmentally friendly alternative to using a car. On some trains, there are study clubs which offer language lessons to commuters on their way to and from work.

The organization of the railway system in Britain has changed recently. For many years the railway was run1 by a public company, British Rail. In 1944, this company was split into two parts: Railtrack, which owns the track and the stations, and several private companies, which operate the trains.

Some people are worried about the change. They believe that private companies will only run one or two trains a day to small country villages or that they will close village stations.

In 1994 Waterloo International Station was opened. If you travel by train direct from Paris or Brussels to London, you arrive at this station. The station, designed by Nicholas Grimshaw, has won many architectural awards.

Train spotters2 are fans of trains. You can see train spotters at many train stations. They stand at the end of the platform and spend hours writing down the numbers of the trains. Serious train spotters travel thousands of miles by train trying to collect the number of every train in Britain. Some train spotters prefer the old fashioned steam trains.

Пояснення до тексту:

1. зд. - вести справи

2. зд. - любителі

6. Прочитайте 6-й абзац і питання до нього. З наведених варіантів відповіді вкажіть номер пропозиції, що містить правильну відповідь на поставлене запитання:

What are train spotters?

People supporting the development of railway system in Britain.

Train spotters are fans of trains.

People preferring the old fashioned steam trains only.

варіант 3

1. Перепишіть наступні пропозиції; підкресліть в кожному з них дієслово-присудок і визначте його видо-часову форму і заставу. Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову. У розділі б) зверніть увагу на переклад пасивних конструкцій (див. Зразок виконання 1).

a) 1. The singing of the Latin hymn has gone on for more than 350 years.

2. Cambridge university is like a federation of colleges.

б) 1. University is seen as a time to be independent.

2. If, for instance, any one leaves a cat to starve in an empty house while he goes for his holiday, he can be sent to prison.

2. Перепишіть наступні пропозиції; підкресліть Participle I і Participle II і встановіть функції кожного з них, т. е вкажіть, чи є воно визначенням, обставиною або частиною дієслова-присудка. Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову (див. Зразок виконання 2).

The lawns are closely cropped, their flower beds primly cultivated, and their trees neatly pruned.

The London buses first came into the streets in 1 829 and they were horse-drawn omnibuses, with three horses.

The sign of the London underground - a red circle crossed with a blue stripe can be seen on the buildings or just under a staircase leading straight under the ground.

When running along London streets omnibuses manage to maneuver very well without running into one another.

3. Перепишіть наступні пропозиції; підкресліть в кожному з них модальне дієслово або його еквівалент. Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову.

In London one can see many buses, cars and taxes in the streets.

You'll have to find the bus stop yourself and remember to look for the number of the bus on the post at the bus stop.

You must remember the number of the bus, because in busy street there may be four or five bus stops close together.

Double-deckers (omnibuses) have seats for 65 people and only 5 people are allowed to stand when the seats are full.

4. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть з 1 по 5 абзаци тексту. Перепишіть і письмово переведіть 3 і 4 абзаци.




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