- Introduces the notion of:
- Transformation as a change of thesource text * t the syntactic level
- The conditions under which regular and occasional transformationstake place in English Verbal Complexes;
- Pluralia and Singularia Tantum;
- Gender Forms;
- Sequence of Tenses.
Speaking about translation equivalence we mentioned that there were three basic types of it - syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. The students might remember that syntactic equivalence meant the structural similarity of the source and target texts. If the syntactic similarity is missing we observe a transformation.
Transformation is any change of the source text at the syntactic level during translation.
On the one hand, even for the languages ??of different structure general structural similarity in translation is common enough. Just compare any English text and its translation into Ukrainian and you will see much in common at the syntactic level (e. G. Subject-Predicate-Object sequences, Attribute-Noun structures, etc.). On the other, total similarity.
It is worth saying that any formal identity of the signs of different languages ??is out of the question and one may speak only about similarity or difference of certain modeling representation, e. g. of syntactic models. of syntactic structures is a rare (and generally hardly desirable) case, which means that in English-Ukrainian translation we often observe transformations.
One should note, however, that the majority of syntactic transformations in English-Ukrainian translation are occasional, i. e. the translator transforms the source syntactic structures on case-by-case basis, each case being dependent on the context, situation, pragmatic intent and many other factors some of which are unknown and the translator's decisions relevant to the case are often intuitive.
To put it differently, it is impossible to formulate the rules for the overwhelming majority of such occasional transformations and one simply can not list all occasional transformations that are observed in English-Ukrainian translation.
-In English-Ukrainian translation occasional transformations are often the matter of translator's individual choice and, in general, strongly depend on stylistic peculiarities and communication intent of the source text.
Yet, in English-Ukrainian translation there are also cases of regular syntactic transformations, where a translator is expected to observe certain transformation rules more or less strictly.
Regular syntactic (grammatical) transformations are the matching rules for the grammars of the two languages ??involved in translation.
Detailed description of regular English-Ukrainian grammatical (syntactic) transformations one can find in any English manual for Ukrainian audience (for example, the matching system of English and Ukrainian Verb Tenses, Noun Numbers and Cases, Adjectives, Pronouns, etc.).
We think that the readers and users of this Manual are generally aware of these matching rules and that it is hardly a goal of a translation manual to duplicate the information of the language manuals for the beginners. Moreover, we consider that the goal of a translation manual is to show (where possible) how and why the matching rules(Regular transformations) of the grammatical systems of the two languages ??involved in translation are violated.
However, there are certain unique elements of the English and Ukrainian grammar systems which, because of their uniqueness deserve special attention as translation problems. The most common of those are mentioned below.
LANGUAGE SYSTEM: PARADIGMS AND SYNTAGMAS | Elements Activated in the Sentence | Lecture 2. Ñommunicative aspect of translation. | TRANSLATION DEFINITION | And shows both the strength and limitations of each. | TRANSLATION RANKING | Lecture 4. TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCE AND EQUIVALENTS | A) Full Translation Equivalents | B) Partial Translation Equivalents | Basic translation devices. |