Joy is at the boiling point !!!
Ex.11 Listen to the text. Find the words which have the sound [au] or [ ?] and write them in the correct part of the table.
|I enjoy living down town. Well, it's very noisy, of course. The traffic is loud, and the young people often shout when they come out of clubs. But there are lots of good points, too. There's a big choice of shops, and it's easy to get around.|
|Words with[au]||Words with[ ?]|
Ex.12 Find a way from Start to Finish. You may pass a square only if the word in it has the sound [au]. You can move horizontally or vertically only.
Pronouncing short words
Short words like articles (a, the), conjunctions (and, or) and prepositions (to, of) are usually unstressed. Listen to this chant. Every line has the stress pattern oOoO. They have this rhythm because the first and the third words are unstressed. These words are: some, and, a, of, for, the, to, or, as. (B80)
NB!In fast speech, the consonant sound after the vowel in short words may not be pronounced. In this case, and sounds like an (An apple and an orange and an onion), and of sounds like a (A bit of this and a bit of that).
Ex.13 In the sentences below both of the words in bold are possible and they sound similar in fast speech. Listen and underline the one you hear. (B83)
1. I had a salad as / and a main course.
2. Give her an / some eggs if she's hungry.
3. She went to look at / for the fruit.
4. She gave me a basket of / for bread.
5. Get some pasta and / or rice.
6. I like the / to cook.
7. She ordered a / the soup.
8. Have some / an orange juice.
9. He invited me at / for lunch.
10. He made this jar for / of jam himself.
Ex.14 Listen and fill the gaps. Then listen again, check and repeat. Make sure you keep the same rhythm: oOoO.
_a_ Glass _of_ milk
1. ___ time ___ lunch
2. ___ egg ___ chips
3. ___ bag ___ nuts
4. ___ drink ___ eat
5. ___ cook ___ rice
6. ___ fast ___ that
7. ___ meal ___ two
8. ___ box ___ food
9. ___ fish ___ meat
Agreeing / disagreeing tones
When we agree with the other person, our voice often goes down at the end, we tell our opinion, showing confidence. Listen to this conversation, notice that the voices go down at the end of each line. (C87)
When we disagree, our voice often goes up at the end, so our opinion sounds unfinished and less strong. Listen to the rest of the conversation, notice how voices go up at the end of each line. (C88)
We can say the same sentence, but change the meaning by the way we say it. Listen to these two examples. Speaker 1 is telling his opinion clearly. Speaker 2 is leaving something unsaid. You feel he is going to continue with but ... (C89)
1. I think there are good. (That's my opinion.)
2. I think they are good ... (They are not too bad, but there's a reason why I do not like them.)
Ex.15 Listen to the following sentences. Are these the speaker's real opinions, or can you 'hear' a 'but'? Write a (.) Or (, but ...) after each line. (C91)
EXAMPLE I like tennis __, But ...__
1. It's nice. _________
2. We're quite good. ________
3. Yes, it is. ___________
4. I do not know. _________
5. Yes. _______
6. He does. _______
7. She likes you. ______
8. They're friendly. _______
9. Not bad. ________
Ex.16 Complete each sentence with an ending from the box. Then decide if they are opinions or check questions and write (opinion) or (check) after each line. Then listen and check. (C93)
EXAMPLE You are not hungry, ___are you?___ (Check)
1. How's your headache? It is not getting worse, _____________
2. Those flowers are lovely, ________________
3. You have not seen my glasses anywhere, _____________
4. Torsen's a great player, ______________
5. I'm not sure. He was from Brazil, _____________
6. I can not quite remember. You need 40 pounds to win, ______________
7. Tennis is so boring, _______________
8. She is not a very good swimmer, _______________
9. I'm not so sure. It starts at nine, ________________
10. It was not a very interesting game, _______________
Letters and sounds
Consonants: [l], [r]
To make the sound [l]: Touch the tooth ridge with the end of the tongue. Push the air along the sides of the tongue.
To make the sound [r]: Curve the end of the tongue back. Move the tongue to relaxed position, moving the lower jaw down a little.
Ex.1 Listen and repeat.
lip litre cold fly fall
rain road rabbit ring train
NB!In South East English and many other accents, you only pronounce [r] if there is a vowel sound after it. For example, in far [Fa:] and car [Ka:], you do not hear it, but in far away [Fa: r?we?] and car engine [Ka: rend??n], you pronounce it because it is followed by a vowel sound. In the American accent the [r] is pronounced.
Ex.2 Listen and repeat the words paying special attention to sounds [r] and [l].
long - wrong
light - right
load - road
fly - fry
glass - grass
Ex.3 Practise saying the tongue twisters.
It's Lola herself as large as life.
Lu's absolutely lovely.
Larry is pulling my leg.
Rack your brains.
Rora arrived on the stroke of three.
Rod has brains and character.
Ex.4 Add the sound [l] or [r] to the beginning of the words and write the new ones. Think of sounds, not spelling.
EXAMPLE: ache ___lake___
1. eight ____________
2. owes ____________
3. air ______________
4. earn ____________
5. end _____________
6. eye _____________
7. egg _____________
8. each ____________
Ex.5 Underline the word in which the letter L or R is silent.
1. cold calm collect film
2. court correct curry diary
3. hurry hairy hungry hair
4. shoulder should sailor slow
5. follow fold folk file
6. artist arrow arrive around
Vowels: Diphthongs [??], [??], [u?]
Ex.6 Listen and repeat.
beard ear deer clear Cheers!
pair square hairbrush where strairs
poor moor cure Europe Urals
Ex.7 Listen and repeat the words paying special attention to sounds [??], [??].
ear - air (fan)
beer - bear
pier - pear
hear - hair
tear - tear
Cheers! - chairs
Ex.8 Practise saying the tongue twisters.
This periodical appears once a year.
Can you hear clearly from here?
Mary wears her hair long.
It's late to tear your hair.
Curiosity is incurable.
I'll surely speak more fluently after a tour to Europe.
In speech words are not separated, they are joined together. Sometimes it is difficult to say where one word finishes and the next word begins. For example, pets enter sounds the same as pet centre because the consonant [s] could be at the end of the first word or at the start of the second one. Listen to the examples. The phrases on the left sound the same as the phrases on the right. (B85)
pets enter pet centre
stopped aching stop taking
ice-cream I scream
known aim no name
called Annie call Danny
clocks tops clock stops
missed a night Mr. Knight
Normally, we know for a context what a word is. For example, these two sentences sound the same, but we know the first one is wrong because it has no sense.
It snow good.
It's no good.
Ex.9 What two words do you get if you move the consonant from the end of one word to the beginning of the next or vice versa? Complete the table. Think of sounds, not spelling.
EXAMPLE cats eyes o cat _size_
1. _____ able o fell table
2. known you o no ______
3. cooks ______ o cook steak
4. seen you o ______ new
5. faced _____ o face told
6. an ocean o a ________
7. stop _____ o stopped earning
8. escaped error o ______ terror
9. _______ cheer o meant year
10. learn chess o _______ 'yes'
Ex.10 Think of a computer which people speak into and it writes what they say. This computer wrote the sentences below incorrectly. Correct the phrases that are wrong using the phrases in the box.
snow good; I can not fix it. ___'S no good___
1. Known uses good news, as they say. _______________
2. Have you phone jaw parents this week? _____________
3. I've never her July before. _______________
4. I think I fell train; let's go inside. ____________
5. These ship steak cars across the river. ____________
6. They join does for dinner. ______________
7. We stop choosing the typewriter when we got the computer. _________
Using high tones
We usually use high tones when we give an opinion about something with a very strong adjective (for example, excellent) To show our strong feeling. If we use weaker adjectives (like nice), Our voice does not usually go high. Listen and compare the voices of the man and woman telling their friend about their holiday. (C95)
Liz: So, how was your trip?
Claire: Oh, it was nice.
Paul: What do you mean, nice? It was brilliant!
Liz: Good hotel?
Claire: Quite pleasant, yes.
Paul: Pleasant? It was excellent! Superb!
Liz: How about the food?
Claire: It was OK.
Paul: OK? It was absolutely delicious!
Liz: And the scenery?
Claire: Quite pretty.
Paul: It was amazing! Beautiful!
People often say a strong adjective with a flat voice to mean the opposite. For example, you could say 'brilliant ' with a flat voice after something bad happens. Listen and compare the pronunciation of this word in these two conversations. In the first one, the person really means it, in the second she does not. (C96)
1. A: We've won a holiday for two in Jamaica!
2. A: Our flight has been cancelled!
Ex.11 Listen to the following conversation. What do Sue and Jim think about the people they are speaking about? Write the names in the correct column. (C97)
|people they like||people they do not like|
Sue: Jeremy is going to stay at the same hotel as us.
Jim: Oh great!
Jim: Ann's invited us to the party.
Jim: Kathleen's coming to stay with us for a few days.
Sue: That'll be fun!
Sue: Gail and Tim want to come on holiday with us.
Jim: That'll be nice!
Ex.12 The responses to the pairs of sentences aandbbelow are the same, but the speaker pronounces them differently. Draw lines to show if you think the voice will go high or be flat. Then listen and check. (C99)
a. - We had to stay in a five-star hotel. b. - We had to spend two days in the airport.
- How awful for you! - How awful for you!
1. a. - Forget the beach; it's raining again! b. - They say we do not have to pay; it's free!
- Brilliant! - Brilliant!
2. a. - I got an A in the exam! b. - I've crashed the car again!
- Well done! - Well done!
3. a. - I can count to three in German. b. - I learnt how to fly a plane while we were on
- Amazing! - Amazing!
4. a. - We could pick fresh fruit off b. - We had a tiny bit of cheese on a dry, old
the trees in the garden. piece of bread.
- Delicious! - Delicious!
5. a. - Frank says he'll take us to the airport. b. - The car's broken down and there are no
- Excellent! - Excellent!
Banker's Wife's Blues
Where does John live? - He lives near the bank.
Where does he work? - He works at the bank.
When does he work? - He works all day and he works all night at
the bank, at the bank, at the great big bank.
Where does he study? - He studies at the bank.
Where does he sleep? - He sleeps at the bank.
Why does he spend all day,
all night, all day, all night
at the bank, at the bank? - Because he loves his bank more than his wife
and he loves his money more than his life.
Is it as easy as that? | What a lot of nonsense! | Stress in Compound Words | Quoting speech | Stress In Longer Words | Emphatic Constructions | Introducing sentence stress | Introducing tones. | I'm melting! | Pronouncing the verb 'to be' and auxiliary verbs |