Questions can be pronounced with the voice going up at the end or going down at the end. You can hear the difference in this conversation. Two people are fixing a place to meet. Listen to the way A pronounces his three questions (C67).
A: Where? (A's voice goes down at the end)
A: Where? (A's voice goes up at the end)
A: Here? (A's voice goes up at the end)
B: Yes, here.
A's first question is an 'open' question. The answer could be any place; he has no idea. A's question 2 and 3 are 'check' questions. He thinks that he knows the answer and he just wants to check. The voice usually goes down at the end of 'open' questions and up at the end of 'check' question.
Ex.14 Listen to the dialogue below, are the questions in it open or check? Draw a down or an up line. (C72)
A: What's your name?
A: And where were you born?
A: Is that in South America?
B: Yes, that's right.
A: And how long have you lived here?
B: Five years.
A: I see. Are you married?
B: No, I'm not.
A: And what do you do?
B: I'm a boxer.
A: You're a boxer?
Ex.15 Listen to the questions below. Draw a down or an up line to mark an open or a check question. (C74)
Are you a student?
1. Have you been to America?
2. What do you study?
3. What time is it?
4. Are you over eighteen?
5. Can you drive?
6. Where is he going?
7. Do you like it?
Ex.16 Look at the questions in bold below. Underline the word you think the speaker will emphasize. Then listen and check (C76).
a. So, your sister's a teacher? Where does she work?
b. Oh, so she does not work here? Where does she work?
1. a. So, you're married? Do you have any children?
b. I have two daughters. Do you have any children?
2. a. So, French is your second language? What's your first language?
b. My first language is Urdu. What's your first language?
3. a. So, you work Mondays to Saturdays? What do you do on Sundays?
b. So, your favourite day is Sunday? What do you do on Sundays?
4. a. I know how he did it, but ... Why did he do it?
b. She was going to do it, so ... Why did he do it?
5. a. My glasses are not here, so ... Where are my glasses?
b. Here are your glasses, but ... Where are my glasses?
Letters and sounds
Consonants: [j], [h]
To make the sound [j]: Make a small gap at the top of mouth, move the tongue down to open the gap. Move the lower jaw down a little.
To make the sound [h]: Push the air out very quickly. Do not touch the top of your mouth with the back of your tongue.
Ex.1 Listen and repeat.
yolk yak yam Europe university
NB!In American English, the [j] is dropped from words like new, student, tune, So for example newspaper [ 'Nju: spe?p?] sound like noose paper [ 'Nu: spe?p?].
hill heel hand horse house
NB!Many speakers, mostly in Great Britain, do not pronounce the H, so hair [He?] sounds the same as air [E?].
Ex.2 Practise saying the tongue twisters.
Yes, your face is familiar.
I'm a year Daniel's senior.
He is hard of hearing.
Hilda is head over heels in love with him.
With my hand on my heart I hoped to look holy.
Ex.3 Add one of the sounds [h] or [j] to the start of the words to make other words, as in the example. Think of sounds, not spelling.
EXAMPLE air ___hair__
1. ear___________ 4. all ___________ 7. eat ____________
2. or ___________ 5. ill ___________ 8. eye ____________
3. eight _________ 6. art __________ 9. old ____________
Ex.4 Each sentence contains several examples of sounds [j] and [h]. Count these sounds in the following questions as in the example.
EXAMPLE Harry had the habit of helping hitch-hikers. (6)
1. We did not use euros in Europe a few years ago.
2. Haley's horse hurried ahead.
3. A fusion of Cuban and European music.
4. Your uniform used to be yellow.
5. The hen hid behind the hen house.
6. The New York University students 'union.
Ex.5 In these groups of words, three of the words begin with the same consonant sound and one of the words begin with the different sound. Underline the one with the different sound.
1. hour half home high
2. union used under university
3. when who where which
4. year euro uniform untie
5. how honest healthy happy
Vowels: Diphthongs [au], [ ?]
Ex.6 Listen and repeat.
house ground town cow mountain
boy oil toy coin point
boil Rolls Royce
Ex.7 Listen and repeat the words paying special attention to sounds [au], [ ?].
all - oil
ball - boil
corn - coin
tore - toy
car - cow
bar - bow
grass - grouse
Ex.8 Listen and repeat the phrases paying special attention to the sound [ ?].
- A loud voice
- A spoilt boy
- An awful noise
- A noisy toy
- An annoying voice
Practise in pairs.
A: That voice is very loud, is not it?
B: Yes, that's a loud voice.
1. That boy is very spoilt.
2. That noise is really awful.
3. That toy is very noisy.
4. That boy is very noisy.
5. That voice is very annoying.
Ex.9 Listen and repeat the sentences paying special attention to the sound [au]. Match the sentences with the pictures.
1. Put it down. a) b) c)
2. Take it out.
3. Throw it out.
4. Turn it down.
5. Work it out. d) e)
Ex.10 Practise saying the tongue twisters.
Count Brown out.
How, how, brown owl!
Why d'you frown down
At the mouse on the ground?
Come! Come! Come now! | Is it as easy as that? | What a lot of nonsense! | Stress in Compound Words | Quoting speech | Stress In Longer Words | Emphatic Constructions | Introducing sentence stress | Introducing tones. | I'm melting! |