SIGNALING PROCESSORS 1

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SIGNALING PROCESSORS

Signaling processors belong to the class of specialized P. They are developed for the solution of tasks of digital processing of signals, the examples of which are:

- Filtration of signal;

- Folding of two signals;

- Calculation of values ??of cross-correlation function of two signals;

- Calculation of autocorrelation function;

- Direct-reverse transformation of Fourier's integrals and others like that.

The tasks of digital processing are solved in the communication equipment and data transfer, tools of hydro- and radio-locations, medical equipment and robotics, engines control, in motor-car electronics, television, in the measuring technique and others like that.

The excellent feature of tasks of digital processing of signals is streaming character of processing of data large volumes in the real mode of time. Operation in real-time requires the increase of P operating speed, and treatment of data large arrays - hardware tools of intensive exchange with peripheral devices.

High operating speed of signaling Pis arrived due to:

- To application of modified RISC-architecture;

- To the problem-oriented set of instructions, for example, to plugging in the set of instructions of such operations, as a multiplication with the accumulation of the MAC (: = + ) With the marked number of implementations in a command in the cicle and with the rule of change of element indexes of arrays Aand B;

- Application of reduction methods of command cycle duration, for example conveyorization of commands;

- To placing of operands of most commands in registers;

- To the use of shadow registers for maintenance of the state of calculations during the context switching;

- To the presence of hardware multiplication which enables to execute the multiplication of two numbers for one command clock;

- To hardware support of programmatic cycles.

The signaling processors of different firms-producers are divided into two classes of processors: on the simple and cheap microprocessors of data processing in a format fixedpoint and on expensive microprocessors, that hardwarely support operations above data in a format with a floating comma.

Signaling fixedpoint processors. The first signaling processor S32010, worked out by a firm "s nstruments"In 1982, processed fixedpoint numbers.

A processor is executed after Harvard architecture basis of which is distribution of access busses to built-in memory of the programs and data. It enables to carry out the selection of command and data in one computer cicle and provide implementation of most commands for one cycle.

The signaling processor S3205consists of center processor (), Built-in memory of the programs and data, multifunction peripheral units, that in most cases enable delivered from an additional external apparatus.

Signaling processors with a floating comma. The use of signaling processors for data processing in a format with floating point is predetermined by the row of tasks (integral transformations, algorithms of compression, decompression, adaptive filtration) which require high exactness of data presentation in a wide dynamic range. Operation with data in a format with a floating point simplifies and accelerates their processing, promotes program reliability, as does not require implementation of operations of rounding off and normalization of data, from hunting of situations of underflow and overflow. However hardware and cost expenses of such Pconsiderably more, than processors of data processing in a format with a fixedpoint.

The first representative of class of processors with a floating comma was Pof S32030.

A processor has a 32-bit bus of commands and data and 24-bit bus of address, contains 2 blocks of RAMin 1of 32-bit words, 32-bit block of multiplication with a floating comma, cache memory of commands by a capacity 64, that has a 32-bit words, 8 registers for operations with the increased exactness, 2 generators of address and register file , will realize the different addressing modes. 40-bit ALDof processor operates both with integers and with numbers in a format with a floating comma. Built-in controller DMAenables to connect in time a calculation and exchange of data with memory. Presence in Pof S32030 of multiprocessor interface, two external interfaces and two serial ports, extended interrupt system simplifies constructing of the systems on its basis.

All operations in a processor are executed for one clock. A processor can in parallel execute in one clock the operation of multiplication and rithmetic-logic operation with numbers in a format with the fixed or floating comma. A processor has a flexible set of instructions and support of HLLof .

5.4. BASIC CONCEPTS AND TASKS OF NEURON CALCULATORS

The examples of tasks solution were considered in previous parts, which are well formalized, id est mathematical models are created for them and there can be the applied algorithms which are based on rules of type "if A, then B". However there are tasks, which it is difficult to formalize, id est find the clear algorithm of solution. To such tasks belong:

- Pattern recognition, for example, recognition of hand-whritten and printed characters during optical introduction into computer, recognition of blood cell types, recognition of language. Thus an object which is recognized is the data array, which needs to be attributed to one of the known classes a priori;

- Clusterization of data (search of regularity). Input data it follows to attribute to any group (cluster) after proper to them "proximity", thus the number of clusters is unknown a priori. As criteria of "proximity" can be used distance between the data vectors, value of correlation factor and others like that;

- Approximation of functions. To find a function which approximates unknown, for example set of experimental data. This task is actual during the design of the difficult systems and creation of control system by difficult dynamic objects, for a robust control;

- Prognostication. After previous behavior of function, to forecast its behavior in the future. This task is actual for the systems control with forecasting and for the systems of making decision;

- Optimization. Aim of these tasks - to find the optimal value of target function which satisfies to the row of limitations.

It should be noted that a man solves well tasks which it is difficult to formalize - recognizes an image, classifies data, forecasts and others like that. Therefore the idea of ??creation of artificial intellect became actual enough. However for this purpose it was needed to conduct numerous researches of principles of functioning of man brain from the point of view of information processing.

A brain of man is most difficult from the known systems of information processing. There are about 100 milliards of nerve cells in it, or neurons, each of which on the average has 10 000 connections.

Neuron is the special type of cells, basic purpose of which consists in an operative control by organism.

The schematic image of neuron is given on fig. 5.6.

A neuron has a body (soma) 2, tree of inputs (dendrites) 1 and outputs (axons) 4. Dendrites are ramified strongly, penetrating into comparatively large space round a neuron. The initial segment of axon - is thickened axon hump 3, which adjacent to the cell body.

With moving away from cell it gradually narrows and a myelin sheath appears on it which has high electric resistance. On sonm and dendrites an endings of axons take place which go from other nervous cells. Each such ending 5 has the shape of bulge, which is Fig. 5.6. Schematic image of neuron called a synaptic terminal, or synapse. The input signals of dendritic tree (postsynaptic potentials) weighted and summarized on a path to a axon bulge, where an output pulse is generated. Its presence (or intensity) is the function of the weighted sum of input signals. An output signal passes on the branches of axon and arrives to synapses which connect axons with the dendrite trees of other neurons. Through synapses a signal is transformed into a new input signal for adjacent neurons. This input signal can be positive and negative (excitative or brake) depending on the type of synapses. The value of output signal which is generated by synapse can differ from the value of signal which enters synapse. These divergences determine efficiency, or weight of synapse. Synapse weight can change in the process of synapse functioning.

The scientists of different specialities did attempts to create the mathematical model of neuron. Yes, biologists tried to get analytical conception of neuron, that would take into account all its known functional bihavior. However the basic task - information transfer by nervous impulse - was lost among the great number of parameters which belong to physics of pulses conductivity. Therefore tried to replace physical description of neuron by logical. Thus a nervous cell was examined as element which passes information. In +1943 the scientists-mathematicians - and ϳ represented a neuron as simple switching element which can be in one of two stable states "On" or "Off". A neuron triggers, if the algebraic sum of inputs is more than threshold in this time. A neuron in such presentation can be used as the computer element and enables to build a network of neurons with corresponding thresholds and connections, that would realize an arbitrary boole function or truth table. These researches resulted in the numerous inventions of charts of information proceding, recognizers and sensory analyzers.

Presently mostly use the model of neuron, represented on fig. 5.7.

A neuron has nsingle-direction inputs (synapses), united with outputs of other neurons and output y(Axon), by which a signal (excitation or braking) acts on synapses of next neurons. Synapse is characterized by the value of synaptic connection, or scales wi, That by physical sense is equivalent to electric conductivity. Every neuron is Fig. 5.7. Model of neuron characterized by the running state sby analogy fromby the nervous cells of brain, which can be excited or braked.

Running state of neuron depends on the value of its inputs, weight and, possibly, the previous state. Mostly the state of neuron is determined or as the weighted sum of its inputs

s = (5.1)

or as distance between the input vector and vector of input weights

x = (5.2)

A neuron output yis the function of its state;

y = f(x) (5.3)

The function f (s) Is called the function of activating.

The most widespread functions of activating is a step threshold, linear threshold, sigmoid, linear and Gaussian, resulted in a table. 5.1.

Table 5. 1. Functions of activating of neuron

Name of function Determination
Step threshold f (s) =
Linear threshold f(s) =
Sigmoid f(s) = (1 + )-1
Linear f(s) = ks + b
Gaussian f(s) =

A neuron network is created as a result of association of output neurons with other inputs, thus neurons create layers, united between themselves.

Neuron networkis a network with the eventual number of layers which consist of the same elements and different types of connections between the layers of neurons.

Thus the amount of neurons in layers is choosen on principle of ensuring of the set quality of task solution, and amount of neuron layers - as possible less for diminishing of solution duration.

The simplest single-layer neuron network which is yet called simple perseptron is represented on fig. 5.8, a. Signals come to ninputs, which pass along synapsis to three neurons which form an only layer with output signals

where j = 1 ... 3.

Double-layer perseptron, got from the single-layer by addition of second layer which consists of two neurons, is represented on fig. 5.8, b. Thus non-linearity of activating function matters very much: if it was not, result of functioning of any p- Layer of neuron network with the gravimetric matrices W()= 1,2, ..pfor every layer and would be taken to multiplying of input vector of signals Xby the matrix of W(S) = W(1) *W(1) *W(2) *. *W(), Id est actually such p- Layer neuron network would be equivalent single-layer with the gravimetric matrix of only layer W(S) : Y = W(S).

Fig.5.8. Single- (a) And double-layer (b) perseptrons

Except the number of layers and connections between them, neuron networks are classified as acyclic or cyclic. Shown on a fig. 5.8, a, bexamples belong to the acyclic neuron networks. The example of cyclic neuron network is represented Fig. 5.9. Cyclic neuron network on fig. 5.9.

If supplement considered charts (see fig. 5.8 and 5.9) by condition about clocking of network (to set duration of neurons trigger), then we will get a hardware for assignment of different algorithms for the data processing by means of neuron networks, which can be used for solution of both the formalized tasks and tasks which it is difficult to formalize. In the last case application of neuron networks is based not on implementation of the offered algorithm, but on memorizing by network of given to it examples on the stage of networking and making of results, coordinated with these examples, on the stage of task solution.

Under the type of signals a neuron networks are divided into binary (digital) and analog. The digital networks operate binary signals, and the output of every neuron can take only two values ??- 0 or 1. After possibility of adaptation it is possible to mark out: neuron networks which construct and teach. In networks which construct, they set a number and type of neurons, graphs of transneuronal connections, weight of inputs, and in networks which teach, - graphs of transneuronal connections and weight of inputs which are changed during implementation of learning algorithm.

After the learning algorithm the networks are divided into a network, which are under supervision, are not under supervision and mixed (hybrid). The first in the process of studies compare a priori known result with got. The second study, not knowing the correct values ??of result. They group input data so that they formed the same output of network. Such approach is used, for example during the task solution of clusterization. At the mixed learning algorithm the part of weight is determined during a supervision, and part - without a supervision.

PART 6. PERIPHERAL DEVICES

6.1. EXTERNAL MEMORY - MAGNETIC and OPTICAL DISK DRIVES, FLASH MEMORY

A disk drive (FDD - Floppy Disk Drive) Is a carrier of data, that operates with variable magnetic disks. Floppy magnetic disks (discettes) enable to carry documents and programs from one computer into other, to keep information which is not used in a computer constantly, and do archival copy.

In the personal computers two types of disk drives are used - for a diskette of size 3,5 inch (89 mm) And for a diskette by the size of 5,25 inch (out-of-date model).

In modern computers they use stores for diskettes of size 3,5 inch by a capacity 1,44 byte.

Diskettes are celled in a hard plastic envelope, that considerably increase their reliability and longevity. There is special switch-latch on diskettes, that allows or forbids to conduct a record on a diskette.

Let us consider descriptions of this data carrier.

Capacity. Presently the capacity of diskette 1,44 MBytedissatisfy users. According to modern necessities on software products, that have ten and hundreds megabyte, on such data medium it is possible to carry the small volumes of data only.

Reliability. Comparatively with other data mediums the mechanism of diskette is unreliable enough, as mechanics of disk drive is such, that a headduring work touches magnetic surface, damaging it. In addition, a disk surface is badly protected from influence of surroundingenvirounmentand has electromagnetic instability.

Operating speed. A read / record rate at the use of diskettes presents about 30 ? 50Kb / s comparatively with 20 ? 40Mb / s at a hard disk. Thus, suchoperating speed extremely unsatisfactory, in consideration of small capacity of carrier.

Price. The cost of disk drive and diskettes is relatively small and, as a result, high availability of users to it as a carrier of data.

Popularity. In spite of that a disk drive is actively used relatively a long ago, it and presently most widespread in the modern personal computers.Many solutions were offered, that tried to force out a disk drive, however deciding this task was not succeeded.To this time such technology of storage of information did not have at the market a competition which would provide more subzero cost of store and data carriers.In addition, obvious advantage is possibility of record which enables to carry information from one computer on other.

The computer-integrated on a system board controller of disk drive (FDC - Floppy Disk Controller) Enables to plug in two disk drives.

For pluging of disk drives they apply the special cable which has 34 conductor. A device number is determined on a cable, as two disconnectors of cable unidentical. A device which is connected to the end of cable gets a number 1, and a device which is connected to the middle of cable is a number 2.

For the task solution of providing of greater capacity on one variable carrier (diskette) with acceptable operating speed comparatively with a general disk drive a company IOmegacreated a store which was named by IOmega Zip100 b.

In this store a diskettes of capacity100 Mbare used, thus for it it is impossible to insert ordinary diskettes, but only special diameter 3,5 inches and in thick about 9 mm.

Instead of Zip100 began to produce the new model - Zip250 b, That operates as with diskettes 250 Mb, So with diskettes 100 Mb. This store operates practically with any interface: IDE, LPT, USB. Basic advantages are - simplicity of setting and exploitation and not-difficult software, proper operating speed. However operating speed belongs only to the internal models or models with interface USB, A device with the interface LPTis limited to the productivity of parallel port oneself. Basic defects are - repugnance with ordinary diskettes and not very much high reliability of device.

Flash-memory. Lately flash-memory is used not only as internal memory but also as external, that connected to the computer through the interface USB. Such device can be switched on and off without the restart of computer. A device has: microcircuits of flash -memory, controller which manages access to the microcircuits, adapter USB.

Devices have small sizes, different forms of corps, that manufactured from a plastic or aluminium. During access to them an indicator lights up. Permission or prohibition of read-out is realized by a switch with the use of password. A device can be used as loadable. Basic properties of external storage such: appropriate capacity (16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 Mbor 1, 2, 4 Gb), Speed ??of data transfer, reliability.

Maximal speed of data transfer for devices reaches 1,5 Mb / s (USB1.1) and 50,60 Mb / s for USB 2.0. Duration of data retention about 10 years, the amount of rewriting cycles reaches 1 million.

Flash-memoryis used not only in computers, but in mobile telephones, network equipment, printers, faxes and others like that. Microcircuits are produced by all producers of memory microcircuits.Suchmicrocircuitshave built-in electric circuits which enable to generate adischarg for erase of data or on all microcircuit, or on some its areas - blocks and provide access to data of short duration.

In some devices it is possible connection of flash-disk, player with reiteration functions, digital dictaphone and F-radio.

So, a basic problem is providing of adequate tools of delivery and distribution of information. Carriers must contain the enormous volumes of different information, allow fast access to some its components, their high-quality recreation, and here to be cheap, compact and reliable. This problem was solved after appearance of optical disks of different types.

Presently there are three types of technology of optical memory. The first type - it is a disk drive ROMon a compact disk (D - R) Named so because it uses optical disks according to sample optical disks in stereo sound systems, and functionally corresponds to the permanent memory. The second type - disk drive WORM (Write Once, Read any times) A record is possible only one time, but reading of data is frequent. The third type has many names - optical with rewriting, optical with erase of information, magnetically-optical.

D - R (ompact Disk Read nly m) ? optical disk, which consists of thin aluminium tape, covered by the protective layer of polymer.Record of information onD - R takes place during its making, by means ofpunching, as a result in an aluminium layer a picture is created from hollows due to which the code of information is carried out.At the read-out of D in the special device which is called by D - R - Drive, the surface of aluminium is scanned by a laser ray, and then laser light is analysed, reflected from the surface of disk, whereupon the picture of hollows on a disk is restored and thus written information is read.

D - R - round disk by diameter 120mm with the central opening by diameter 15mm, thickness 1,2mm. The central area round opening by a width 6mm is called a fastening area (clamping area). After it directly there is title part (lead in area) Which contains maintenance of disk(Table of content). After title part the area is placed in a width a 33mm, intended for storage of data. Physically it is only track. Finishing is a terminal area (lead out) In a width a 1mm. External dinner of disk has a width a 3mm.

D - R are made by the method of punching. At first make plastic basis from the transparent plastic or polycarbonate, whereupon over a plastic for the reflection of laser ray they spread the layer of aluminium, which, in turn, is covered by the protective layer of varnish.One can see this argenteum well from the back of transparent disk.

The area of ??data storage contains from 1 to 99 tracks usually, but placing different information on one track is not allowed. Digit information is saved on D - Ras microscopic hollows - pits, which are alternated downstep of spiral.

Typical length of pit presents 0,8 ? 3,2 ?m, Width - 0,6, depth - 0,12, and distance between the separate paths - 1,6 ?m. On one inch (2,54 cm) Of disk surface 16 thousand or 625 turns take place on one millimetre (for comparison on one inch of magnetic disk 96 paths are contained only). Due to such small values ??of pits a D - Rcontains the enormous volume of information - about 700 Mb. The new types of disks have on an order a greater volume and feasible record of information by an user. The read-out of Dis carried out in a special device which is called by D - ROM - Drive.

It is known that most stores are external and built-in (internal). Most stores of offered presently D - ROMare built-in.

On the front panel of every store there is access to the mechanism of loading of compact disk. One of most widespread there is a mechanism of D - ROMloading by means of caddy - plastic container in which they lay a compact disk before loading direct in a drive. Another way of loading - by means of tray-mechanism, which similar to the tray which is pulled out from a store usually after pressure of the button "ject". On it they set a compact disk, whereupon they push tray-mechanism in a store by hand. There are varieties of tray-mechanism, for example -u. In this case loading of disk is semi-automatic and place is taken after an easy touch.

In addition, on the front panel of drive it is placed: indicator of device operation (busy), Nest for connecting of earphones or stereo sound system (for listening of audiodisks), automatic fader (also for CD). For the system of ddythe opening is foreseen also by means of which it is possible to fish out a compact disk even in an emergency situation, for example, if the button of "ject"Malfunctions.

On the backplane of almost all drivers of D - Rthere are usually three disconnectors: interface, feed and audio. In particular, a disconnector for the leadingout of voice signals enables to connect a driver to a sound card.

Except these disconnectors in case of the use of SCSI-interface there is a set of jumpers or switches on the backplane of drive which

Fig. 6.1. Typical device of store CD-ROM Drive

determine a device number and its operation mode.

Typical device of store D-R Driveis represented on fig. 6.1. In the drive of compact disks there are a few base elements

- Laser diode, servomotor, optical system, photodetector.

Operating principle of disk drive is similar to operating principle of ordinary disk drives for floppy disks.

Semiconductor laser 4 generates a low-powered laser ray which gets on reflecting mirror.

Motor, controlled by microprocessor D-R Drive displaces a movable carriage 6 with a mirror and lens 7 to the necessary path of compact disk 1. The ray of laser focuses on the surface of D-R by means of lens which focuses a reflected from the surface of disk ray. This ray by means of the optical system 5 is delivered on a detector 2, which converts the accepted light pulses into electric, which are then decoded by a controller 3 and transfered to the computer as digital data.




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