Compounds of chlorine

  1. Chlorine
  2. Compounds of fluorine
Oxidation state Name Formula Example compounds
-1 chlorides Cl? ionic chlorides, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid
chlorine Cl2 elemental chlorine
+1 hypochlorites ClO? sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite
+3 chlorites ClO2? sodium chlorite
+4 chlorine dioxide ClO2
+5 chlorates ClO3? sodium chlorate, potassium chlorate, chloric acid
+7 perchlorates ClO4? potassium perchlorate, perchloric acid, magnesium perchlorate organic perchlorates, ammonium perchlorate, dichlorine heptoxide

hydrogen CHLORIDE. Pure HCl is a colorless gaswith a repugnant smell, m.p. = -85.1. It is easily liquefied at high pressure. HCl is soluble in water well: at 20 2.5 volumes of HCl can be dissolved in 1 volume of H2O. Aqueous HCl solution has namehydrochloric (Historically, is also called muriatic)acid. HCl with water forms azeotropic boiling mixture, that contains 20.24% HCl. The commercial concentrated HCl contains 37% HCl, it has a density of r = 1.19 g / cm3. Hydrochloric acid belongs to the series of very strong acids.

Curious enough for water solution it is easy to find the approximate HCl percentage, simply multiplying on 2 the value after comma of the decimal fractional part of its density value. For example, at the density of 1.19 g / cm3the percentage HCl will be equal 19.2 = 38%. Consequently, and vice versa, knowing the percentage HCl in hydrochloric acid, it is possible to estimate approximately its density.

By preparation 1.184 N solution of HCl it is convenient to prepare medium with pH = 0 (at 25 oC).


In industry:

Pure: H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl

Technical purity: In great amount HCl is obtained as a by-product of chlorination of organic compounds:

RH + Cl2 = R-Cl + HCl

where R is the organic radical.

Example: CH4 + Cl2 = CH3Cl + HCl

In laboratory:

NaCl + H2SO4 = HCl + NaHSO4 on cold

2NaCl + H2SO4 = 2HCl + Na2SO4 at heating

Chemical properties of halogens | FLUORINE | Elementary fluorine gas is inert towards N2 and O2, as well as He, Ar, Ne. | Compounds of fluorine |

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