Cl2 reacts with active metals without heating, with other substances when heating:
2Sb + 5Cl2 2SbCl5
Cu + Cl2 CuCl2
Important feature: at complete absence of moisture Cl2 has no action on iron, therefore liquefied gas Cl2 can be stored in steel bulbs.
Cl2 is a strong oxidant. It reacts with non-metals, forming covalent chlorides:
2P + 5Cl2 = 2PCl5
2NH3 + 3Cl2 = N2 + 6HCl
Interaction of Cl2 with H2 is an interesting example of the unbranched chain reaction:
Cl2 + Hn = 2Cl·
Cl· + H2 ® HCl + H·
H· + Cl2 ® HCl + Cl· and etc.
Here a single excited (?) Cl2 molecule forms on the 100 thousand HCl molecules in average.
Highly explosive oil-likechloride of nitrogen, NI3, Is formed in the concentrated solution of NH4Cl:
NH4Cl + 3Cl2 = NCl3 + 4HCl
Chlorine has a positive charge in 3 molecule. Chlorine gas demonstrates reducing properties only at interaction with F2:
3F2 + Cl2 = 2
Reaction of chlorine with the halogens.Fluorine, F2, Reacts with chlorine, Cl2, At 225 ° C to form the interhalogen species C1F. Chlorine (III) fluoride is also formed and the reaction does not reach its completion.
Cl2(G) + F2(G) = 2ClF (g) 225oC
Cl2(G) + 3F2(G) = 2ClF3(G)
Under more forcing conditions, excess fluorine reacts withchlorine, Cl2, At350 ° C and 225 atmospheres pressure to form the interhalogen species C1F5.
Cl2(G) + 5F2(G) = 2ClF5(G) 350oC, 225atm
Chlorine, Cl2, Reacts with bromine, Br2, In the gas phase to form the unstable interhalogen species bromine (I) chloride, ClBr.