Judicial authority in the Russian Federation is exercised only by courts, in the person of judges and jurors attracted in accordance with the procedure established by law for the administration of justice, and lay judges and arbitrators. No other bodies or persons shall have the right to take upon themselves the administration of justice. Judicial authority is executed by way of constitutional, civil, administrative and criminal court proceedings.
Justice in the Russian Federation shall be administered solely by courts founded in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and this Federal Constitutional Law. The establishment of ad hoc courts and courts not envisaged by this Federal Constitutional Law shall not be permitted.
The Russian Federation shall have federal courts, constitutional courts and justices of the peace of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, which constitute the court system of the Russian Federation.
Federal courts shall consist of:
- The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation;
- The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, supreme courts of republics, courts of regions and territories, courts of the autonomous regions, district courts, military and specialized courts, which constitute the system of federal courts of general jurisdiction;
- The Supreme Arbitrage Court of the Russian Federation, federal arbitrage courts of the courts of regions, arbitrage courts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, which constitute the system of federal arbitrage courts.
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