Some rules for safe practice and avoiding electric shocks.
Electricity can be dangerous and even fatal for those who do not understand the simple rules of safety. There are many fatal accidents involving by a well-trained personnel who violates the basic rules of personal safety.
Currents above 100 milliamperes or only one tenth of an ampere are fatal. A workman who has contacted currents above 200 milliamperes may live to see another day if given rapid treatment. Currents below 100 milliamperes can be serious and painful. A safe rule: Do not place yourself in a position to get any kind of a shock.
Here are some rules that should be observed to avoid electric shocks.
1. Be sure of the conditions of the equipment and the dangers present beforeworking on a piece of equipment. Many sportsmen are killed by supposedly unloaded guns; many technicians are killed by supposed "dead" circuits.
2. Never rely on safety devices such as fuses, relays and interlock systems to protect you. They may not be working and may fail to protect when most needed.
3. Neverremove the grounding prong of a three wire input plug. This eliminates the grounding feature of the equipment making it a potential shock hazard.
4. Do not work on a cluttered bench. A disorganized mess of connecting leads, components and tools only leads to careless thinking, short- circuits, shocks and accidents. Develop habits of systemized and organized procedures of work.
5. Do not work on wet floors. Your contact resistance to ground is substantially reduced. Work on a rubber mat or an insulated floor.
6. Do not work alone. It's just good sense to have someone around to shut off the power, to give artificial respiration and to call a doctor.
7. Never talk to anyone while working. Do not let yourself be distracted. Also, do not you talk to anyone, if he is working on dangerous equipment. Do not be the cause of an accident.
8. Always move slowly when working around electrical circuits. Violent and rapid movements lead to accidental shocks and short circuits.
Violate rules - порушувати правила
Personal safety - особиста безпека
Rapid treatment - невідкладна мед. допомога
Interlock system - система блокування
Grounding prong - заземлюючий штир
Three wire input plug - трифазний вхідний штепсель
Work on a cluttered bench - працювати в безладді
Connecting leads - з'єднувальні дроти
Artificial respiration - штучне дихання
Be distracted - відволікатися
Violent and rapid movements - різкі і швидкі рухи
5. Answer the questions.
1. In what case can electricity be dangerous and fatal?
2. What currents are fatal?
3. Why must a workman not rely on fuses, relays and interlock systems?
4. Why is it so important not to remove the grounding prong of a three wire input plug?
5. What does a cluttered bench lead to?
6. Why is it so necessary for an electrician to work on a rubber mat?
7. Should an electrician work alone or have someone around?
8. Why is it important for an electrician to avoid violent and rapid movements?
6. What do you call:
a) the process of taking care of electrical mechanisms on board ship?
b) the actions you fulfill when you want to protect yourself?
c) the tools you can carry from one place to another in your hands?
d) the people who take care of any type of equipment?
e) the things you put on your hands when you want to let yourself touch hot-line?
f) the things you put on your feet to protect yourself against a pace voltage?
g) the means which ensure your individual protection?
h) the things you put on your face to protect your lungs and skin?
7. Make sure you have properly understood the meaning of the text:
1. Electrical traumatism is caused by:
a) electrical safety; b) portable accessory; c) formal instructing on safe methods of work.
2. The use of electrical energy is connected with:
a) possible fires; b) thermal effect of an electric current; c) environmental conditions.
3. The normal state of shipboard electrical equipment is broken when:
a) you do not put on special gauntlets;
b) insulation can not withstand a working voltage;
c) damages occur.
4. When the normal state of shipboard electrical equipment is broken:
a) clip-on instruments are used;
b) protective glasses are put on;
c) arc and spark discharges emerge.
5. Principal protective means are those which:
a) protect against a pace voltage;
b) help to withstand a working voltage;
c) are designed for individual protection.
6. Additional protective means are those which:
a) protect against light, thermal and mechanical effects;
b) protect against the effect of an electric arc;
c) make it possible to touch hot-line parts.
Пояснювальна записка. | Find the equivalents of following word combinations. | Give adequate Russian equivalents of the italicized words. | Read and translate the following text. | Виберіть відповідну форму герундія. | FIRST AID FOR ELECTRIC SHOCK. | Визначте правильне закінчення речень. | Give adequate Russian equivalents of the italicized words. | Read and translate the text. | Герундій у функції підмета. |