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Read and translate the following text.

  1.  A Discuss the following questions in small groups.
  2.  A) Complete the following sentences with ideas of your own.
  3.  A) Study the following words and learn them. Learn the words by heart.
  4.  Additional text.
  5.  Answer the following questions and do the given assignment.
  6.  Answer the following questions.
  7.  Answer the following questions.

The main reasons of electrical traumatism and means of protection against it.

The main reasons of electrical traumatism on board ships are the following:

1. rough infringement of Rules of both shipboard electrical maintenance and electrical safety;

2. live-line maintenance without observing protective measures;

3. imperfection of operation manual of electrical mechanisms (those of deck machinery, engine-room etc.);

4. imperfection of construction of wiring accessory;

5. faultiness and imperfection of portable accessory and portable tools;

6. lack of uniformity in the choice of voltages of start regulating equipment control circuits;

7. unsatisfactory condition of the mains electrical insulation;

8. ill-timed elimination of the troubles and damages of the electrical equipment occurred;

9. formal instructing on safe methods of work.

The use of electrical energy on board ships is not only associated with the danger of electric shock hazard of an operating personnel but also with possible fires.

Under normal conditions a thermal effect of an electric current is rated, i.e. the heating of conductors and current-leading parts of the electrical equipment is calculated so that it not exceed fixed rate If the Rules of shipboard electrical maintenance and safety are not observed, if damages occur and the environmental conditions (dampness, dust, chemically active substances ) affect the electrical equipment, its normal state is broken. On electrical sets there emerge short-circuits, overloads, large transient resistances, arc and spark discharges, which can also cause fires.

To protect an operating personnel of electrical sets against electric-shock hazard there exist principal and additional protective means.

Principal protective means are those the insulation of which is reliable enough to withstand a working voltage of an electrical set and makes it possible to touch hot-line current-leading parts. On electrical sets with voltage up to 1,000 V the above mentioned means are the following: insulating gloves, tools equipped with insulated handles, voltage indicators, insulating and clip-on instruments.

Additional protective means are not designed to ensure protection against electric shock hazard, but against a pace voltage and detrimental effect of an electric arc and the products of its burning. Such means are the following: insulating galoshes and high overshoes, insulating rubber rugs, insulating stands.

There are also auxiliary protective means designed for individual protection of an operating personnel against light, thermal and mechanical effects. They are protective glasses, gas-masks, special gauntlets etc.

Vocabulary

Ship board electrical maintenance - обслуговування суднового електрообладнання

Live-line maintenance - робота на лінії під напругою з безпосереднім дотиком до струмоведучих частин

Operation manual - інструкція з експлуатації

Wiring accessory - електротехнічна арматура

Portable accessory - переносна арматура

Start regulating equipment control circuits - ланцюги управління пускорегулювальної апаратури

Withstand a working voltage - витримувати робочу напругу

Insulating gloves - ізоляційні рукавички

Tools equipped with insulated handles - інструменти з ізольованими рукоятками

Insulating and clip-on instruments - ізоляційні і струмові кліщі

Insulating galoshes and high over-shoes - ізоляційні (діелектричні) калоші та боти

Insulating rubber rugs - ізоляційні гумові килимки

Insulating stands - ізолюючі підставки

Protective glasses - захисні окуляри

Gas-mask - протигаз

Special gauntlets - спеціальні рукавиці

5. Answer the questions.

1. Is the thermal effect of an electric current rated under normal conditions?

2. In what way is the heating of conductors and current-leading parts calculated?

3. What happens if the rules of shipboard electrical maintenance and safety are not observed?

4. What are the phenomena emerging on electrical sets that can cause fires?

5. What are the principal means protecting an operating personnel against electric shock hazard?

6. What do we call:

a) principle protective means;

b) additional protective means;

c) auxiliary protective means.

 




 Пояснювальна записка. |  Find the equivalents of following word combinations. |  Give adequate Russian equivalents of the italicized words. |  Read and translate the text. |  Визначте форму герундія і переведіть пропозиції на російську мову. |  FIRST AID FOR ELECTRIC SHOCK. |  Визначте правильне закінчення речень. |  Give adequate Russian equivalents of the italicized words. |  Read and translate the text. |  Герундій у функції підмета. |

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