I 2.1 Інфінітив у функції обставини мети, слідства і супутніх умов
Упр. 10 I.4 Визначте, яку функцію (що підлягає чи обставини мети) виконує інфінітив в наступних пропозиціях.
· To eat three times a day is healthy.
· To drink while driving is dangerous.
· To kill bugs, spray the area regularly.
· To obtain the field effective in polarizing the molecule we must subtract the field due to this molecule.
· To define exactly what it is meant by the total heat in a body is at present still not possible.
· To find the mass of electron was then of prime importance.
· To be fully effective control must start with the production of raw materials.
· To explain the pressure of gases and their diffusion, it's generally supposed that all substances are made of very minute particles called molecules.
Упр. 10 I. 5 З'єднайте дві пропозиції з кожної пари в одне, використовуючи інфінітив для вираження мети. Якщо друге речення містить заперечення, воно завжди з'єднується з першим за допомогою спілок: so as (to) або in order (to).
Приклад: He sent me to Spain. He wanted me to learn Spanish.
He sent me to Spain to learn Spanish.
He turned out the light. He did not want to waste electricity.
He turned out the light so as not to waste electricity.
1. I am buying paint. I want to paint my hall door.
2. He tied a knot in his handkerchief. He hoped that this would remind him to meet the train.
3. We had no cups but he gave us coconut shells. He said we could drink out of them. (Виключіть them.)
4. He rushed into the burning house. He wanted to save the child.
5. He read only for short periods each day. He did not want to strain his eyes.
6. They got up very early. They wanted to get to the top of the hill before sunrise.
7. We must keep our gloves on. We do not want to get frost-bitten.
8. I took off my shoes. I did not want to make any noise.
9. Before the carpenter came she covered the floor with polythene sheeting. She wanted to protect the carpet.
10. He was playing very softly. He did not want to disturb anyone.
11. I am sending him to the USA. I want him to study electronics there.
12. I sent him out of the room. I wanted to discuss his progress with his headmaster.
13. The police have barricaded the main streets. They want to prevent the demonstration from marching through the town.
14. They evacuated everybody from the danger zone. They wanted to reduce the risk.
15. I am learning Greek. I wish to read Homer.
16. The town council has forbidden coal fires. They are trying to keep the air clean.
17. He coughed. He wanted to warn them that he was coming.
18. You should take your holidays in June. In this way you would avoid the rush.
19. I am learning skiing at an indoor school. I want to be able to ski when I get to Switzerland.
20. The workmen left red lights near the hole. They wanted to warn motorists.
* * Упр.10 I. 6 Переведіть пропозиції, що містять інфінітив у функції обставини слідства.
1. Molecules are too small to be seen with the most powerful microscope.
2. Only the most swiftly moving molecules possessed sufficient energy to escape from the atmosphere.
3. In a large galaxy the concentration of stars is often too dense for them to be examined individually.
4. It is too early to properly weigh the significance of this method.
5. It has long been established that portions of the Earth's upper atmosphere are ionized enough to cause refraction and reflection of radio waves.
6. The negative poles in this case are far enough away so as not to influence the positive poles.
7. A winged spacecraft has rather large areas to be heat-protected.
8. These regions were too far away to be affected by the explosion.
9. Mere observations of the stars can not tell us which are young and which are old, for all their changes are far too slow to detect.
10. A palm's top is certainly the only type that is both light and small enough to fit into a jacket pocket.
Упр.10 I. 7 A З'єднайте дві пропозиції з кожної пари в одне, використовуючи інфінітив і прислівники too, enough для вираження обставини слідства.
Приклад: ~ It is very cold. We can not go out. It is too cold for us to go out. ~ He is strong. He can carry it. He is strong enough to carry it.
~ Would you be very kind and answer this letter by return?
1. He had not much money. He could not live on it.
2. He was furious. He could not speak.
3. The coffee is not strong. It will not keep us awake.
4. I was very tired. I could not walk any further.
5. You are not very old. You can not understand these things.
6. He was very snobbish. He would not talk to any of us.
7. She was very mean. She never gave to charity.
8. He is very selfish. He would not put himself out for anyone.
9. He is very impatient. He never listens to anyone.
10. The temperature is very low. The reaction can not continue.
11. The energies are quite high. The particles may collide.
12. The conditions are extremely favourable. The process may occur.
13. The controversy of opinions is very great. The question can not be settled now.
14. This explanation is rather satisfactory. We can accept it.
15. This problem is very complicated. I can not describe it in a few words.
16. The paper is extremely long. I can not remember the details.
Упр.10 I. 7 B Перефразуйте наступні пропозиції, використовуючи союз so ... as і інфінітив.
17. Would you be very good and forward my letters while I am away?
18. Would you be very kind and turn down the radio a little?
19. Would you be very kind and lend me your umbrella?
20. Would you be very kind and translate this for me?
* * Упр.10 I. 8 Переведіть такі пропозиції. Запам'ятайте дієслова, після яких вживається інфінітив у функції супутніх умов. Інфінітив в цій функції перекладається особистої формою дієслова, який приєднується до сказуемому союзом "І", деепричастием або іменником з приводом.
Приклад: Elements combine chemically to form compounds.
Елементи хімічно з'єднуються і утворюють
(Утворюючи / с освітою) з'єднання.
Інфінітиви, які зазвичай використовуються в функції обставини супутніх умов:
to bring about - Породжувати, викликати
to give - Давати, породжувати
to give rise to - Породжувати, приводити до
to form - утворювати, давати
to make- Виробляти, робити
to produce - Виробляти, давати
to yield - виробляти, давати
1. Modern theory considers that at extremely high temperatures all molecules break up to form atoms or ions which are electrically charged atoms or portions of molecules.
2. Rutherford proved that alpha particles are the nuclei of helium atoms and that after the alpha particles are slowed down, they capture two electrons to become normal helium atoms.
3. According to some scientific theory the surface rocks of Mars have combined with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a layer of iron oxide.
4. Element 94 was given the name of Plutonium to follow Uranium in the same order as the corresponding planets.
5. If the velocity of a satellite exceeds escape velocity then the satellite will leave the Earth never to return.
6. The world production of UO is very high to rise perhaps to still greater amount in the next few years.
* * Упр.10 I.9 З'єднайте дві пропозиції з кожної пари в одне.
Приклад: The atom may eject another particle. It becomes a different atom.
The atom may eject another particle to become a different atom.
1. Two hydrogen atoms combine. They form a hydrogen molecule.
2. Under this assumption the equation is reduced. This yields a classical relation.
3. The new substance readily reacts with alkali metals. The reaction gives rise to alloys with predetermined characteristics.
4. At this stage a new theory was advanced. This produced a revolutionary change in our understanding of the process.
5. Attractions and repulsions often cooperate. The viscosity of molecules reduces.
6. Sulphur dioxide decomposes. Sulphur dioxide yields sulphur and oxygen.
7. The crystal units rearranged. They produced a pseudomorphic form.
8. This compound is oxidized by silver oxide. It loses one hydrogen atom.
9. Caustic soda dissolves in water. A great number of heat is produced.
Вживання умовного способу в складних пропозиціях. | Умовні речення I і 0 типу | Умовні речення II типу | Умовні речення III типу | Умовні речення змішаного типу | Умовні речення з бессоюзной зв'язком. Мала ймовірність протікання події | Союзи, що вводять підрядні речення умови | Вираз побажань і жалю | Тести на різні випадки вживання умовного способу | форми інфінітива |