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# Exercises (using permutations and combinations)

1. In how many ways can six different files be arranged in a row on a desk?

2. In how many ways can two boys and two girls be chosen from a group of 15 boys and 18 girls?

3. In how many ways can four different letters be put in four different envelopes?

4. In how many ways can three different coats be arranged on five hooks in a row?

5. Giulia has ten different mathematics books and four different chemistry books. In how many ways can she arrange seven of the mathematics books and one chemistry book on a shelf if the chemistry book must always be at one end?

6. In how many ways can the letters of the word PHOTOGRAPH be arranged?

7. Two sets of books contain seven different novels and four different autobiographies. In how many ways can the books be arranged on a shelf if the novels and the autobiographies are not mixed up?

8. In how many ways can ten different examinations be arranged so that the two mathematics examinations are not consecutive and the two French examinations are not consecutive?

9. Given that each digit can be used more than once, how many two-digit numbers can be made from the set if

a) any two digits can be used

b) the two digits must be the same

c) the number must be odd

d)the number must be greater than 60?

10. A quiz team of five students is to be chosen from nine students. The two oldest students cannot both be chosen. In how many ways can the quiz team be chosen?

11. Consider the letters of the word DIFFICULT.

a) How many different arrangements of the letters can be found?

b) How many of these arrangements have the two I's together and the two F's together?

c) How many of the arrangements begin and end with the letter F?

12. Margaret wants to put eight new plants in her garden. They are all different.

a) She first of all decides to plant them in a row. In how many ways can she do this?

b) She then decides that they would look better in a circle. In how many ways can she do this?

c) She now realizes that two of the plants are identical. How many arrangements are there for planting them in a row and for planting them in a circle?

13. a) How many different arrangements of the word ARRANGEMENT can be made?

b) How many arrangements are there which start with a consonant and end with a vowel?

14. Jim is having a dinner party for four couples.

a) In how many ways can the eight people be seated at Jim's circular dining table?

b) John and Robin are a couple, but do not want to sit next to each other at the dinner party. In how many ways can the eight people now be seated?

c) Jim decides that the two oldest guests should sit next to each other. In how many ways can the eight people now be seated?

15. a) How many numbers greater than 300 can be made from the set if each integer can be used only once?

b) How many of these numbers are even?

16. a) A local telephone number has seven digits and cannot start with zero. How many local numbers are there?

b) The telephone company realizes that they do not have enough numbers. It decides to add an eighth digit to each number, but insists that all the eight-digit numbers start with an odd number and end with an even number. The number still cannot start with a zero. Does this increase or decrease the number of possible telephone numbers and if so by how many?

17. a) How many different arrangements are there of the letters of the word INQUISITION?

b) How many arrangements are there where the four I's are separate?

c) How many arrangements are there where the S and the T are together?

18. Five different letters are written and five different envelopes are addressed. In how many ways can at least one letter be placed in the wrong envelope?

19. On an examination paper of 20 questions a student obtained either 6 or 7 marks for each question. If his total mark is 126, in how many different ways could he have obtained this total?

20. Four boxes each contain six identical coloured counters. In the first box the counters are red, in the second box the counters are orange, in the third box the counters are green and in the fourth box the counters are purple. In how many ways can four counters be arranged in a row if

a) they are all the same

b) three are the same and one is different

c) they are all different

d) there is no restriction on the colours of the counters?

21. a) In how many ways can six different coloured beads be arranged on a ring?

b) If two beads are the same colour, how many ways are there now?

22. a) How many different combinations of six numbers can be chosen from the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 if each digit is only chosen once?

b) In how many ways can the digits be divided into a group of six digits and a group of two digits?

c) In how many ways can the digits be divided into two groups of four digits?

23. A shop stocks ten different types of shampoo. In how many ways can a shopper buy three types of shampoo if

a) each bottle is a different type

b) two bottles are the same type and the third is different?

24. A mixed team of 10 players is chosen from a class of 25 students. 15 students are boys and 10 students are girls. In how many ways can this be done if the team has five boys and five girls?

25. Find the number of ways in which ten people playing five-a-side football can be divided into two teams of five if Alex and Bjorn must be in different teams.

26. A tennis team of four is chosen from seven married couples to represent a club at a match. If the team must consist of two men and two women and a husband and wife cannot both be in the team, in how many ways can the team be formed?

27. Nick goes to the shop to buy seven different packets of snacks and four bottles of drink. At the shop he find he has to choose from 15 different packets of snacks and 12 different bottles of drink. In how many different ways can he make his selection?

28. In how many ways can three letters from the word BOOKS be arranged in a row if at least one of the letters is O?

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