It is estimated that by the end of the century the overwhelming majority of people will be occupied in science, education, administration and the service industry. Machines and robots will be the primary producers of material wealth.
1. A Robot Laboratory Assistant. When a research worker studies biological objects, the brain, for example, he has to operate with tremendous figures: 15 thousand million neurons, 150 thousand million interneuron elements. One cubic millimeter of blood has 5 million red blood cells.
Our scientists have developed a machine to count and determine these biological micro objects. This robot laboratory assistant does in one to three minutes the work that usually takes a month using conventional technique. This robot besides counting the objects, also determines their size.
2. Robot Assists Surgeon. A cybernetic device, which collects information on the main physiological processes taking place in the organism of a patient undergoing an operation, has been made at one of our clinics. A special screen shows the patient's pulse rate, blood pressure and body temperature. It has been decided to improve the device to give recommendations to the operator of artificial heart. A computer assembled at the clinic, after collecting and processing all the necessary information about the patient, will be able to control "heart-lung" apparatus automatically.
3. An UnderwaterRobot. An underwater robot with the TV camera, the first of its kind, has been successfully tested in our country. Intended for detailed studies of the ocean bed at depths as low as 4,000 meters, it was remote-controlled from the shore and could perform previously programmed operations. It could be given "hands" adjusted delicately enough to thread a needle under water.
4. Space Robots. Space research in our country opens up vast perspectives for robots. Artificial satellites are already circulating the globe. The orbital stations are added to them nowadays. This equipment involves maintenance, repair, part replacement and other jobs which can not be planned beforehand. Spacecrafts fitted with robots are already in use.
The great advantage of the space robots is that they need no life support. They could be left in orbit forever, or sent off in a moon vehicle to explore some remote area without anyone worrying about whether it would come back or not. They are also very useful for repairing the outside of a spacecraft or for assembling a space station in orbit.
5. ArtificialMan for MedicalStudents. Science fiction has become reality at a research laboratory in California with the creation of a 6 ft. 2 in. artificial man which breathes and blinks.
"Sim-1" - the first of a series of simulators - was created by several scientists from California universities. It is to serve as a "patient" for medical students. Its inventors believe that increasingly complex Sims will be built, shortening from eight to six the number of years of study required for a medical degree.
"Sim-1" human characteristics include ability to breathe, blink its eyes, and open its jaws- which contain a full set of teeth - move the tongue and vocal cords, and be affected by drugs in much the same way as a human being . Speech and mobility have not yet been built in, although the inventors say this would be no problem.
6. Robots on a Stroll. In 1910 news was received in Japan that a magic box (a robot using springs) was displayed at the World Exposition in London. This news captured the interest of a boy in the fifth form of an elementary school that started to construct his own robot of tin and cardboard. Ten years passed and the boy, now a young man of 21, had already received a patent for a robot which could speak. This was the young Aizawa who, since then, has spent all his life in making toys.
Aizawa has created 700 robots, ranging from 2 meters tall to those of only 30 centimetres. But he is particularly proud of eight of his creations, which are life-size robot brothers. These eight robots not only walk, but also can shake hands, wink, bow, nod and talk. Numerous requests are received by Aizawa for the services of his eight robots, which are dispatched to children's halls and children's science museums. Aizawa brought out two of eight brother robots for a stroll outside his home. One is Goro. He is 165 centimeters tall and weighs 123 kilograms. The other is Hachiro, weighing 60 kilograms and 115 centimeters in height.
the overwhelming majority - переважна більшість
red blood cells - червоні кров'яні кульки
a surgeon - хірург
a "heart - lung" apparatus - апарат "серце - легені"
at the depths as low as - на глибинах до
remote-controlled - дистанційно керований
adjusted delicately enough to thread a needle under water - досить точно пристосовані, щоб одягати нитку в голку під водою
life support - життєві засоби до існування
without anyone worrying about - і ніхто не буде турбуватися про те
vocal cords - голосові зв'язки
tin and cardboard - жесть і картон
Exercises | A) Compare BASIC and PASCAL; b) Speak on the difference in BASIC and PASCAL structures. | FROM THE HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER | THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES | AT THE COMPUTING CENTRE OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES | NEWS IN THE COMPUTER FIELD | THE FIFTH-GENERATION PROJECT | COMPUTERS COMPETE | HAND-HELD COMPUTER | VOLUMETRIC ELECTRONICS |