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# Exercises

**4. Find the equivalents:**

1. numerical measurements | 1.физическое оборудование |

2. by using physical analogs | 2.скорость в секунду |

3. the binary system | 3.численные величины |

4. any information | 4. численные измерения |

5. other physical variables | 5. двоичная система |

6. numerical quantities | 6. любая информация |

7. a speed per second | 7. один из способов |

8. physical equipment | 8. особая ячейка памяти |

9. one of the ways | 9. используя физические аналоги |

10. a particular memory cell | 10. другие физические переменные |

**5. Arrange (a) synonyms and (b) antonyms in pairs and translate them:**

a) to perform, to compute, to take in, a figure, to arrange, to show, to carry out, a digit, to calculate, little, to display, small, to receive, to position, instruction, data, location, command, information, cell

b) inside, to the right, addition, multiplication, simple, to the left, division, outside, small, complex, big, subtraction, differentiating, at the right, integrating, at the left, the right-hand column, the left-hand column

**6. Form nouns from the verbs by adding suffixes:**

-ment [-mənt]

Model: to equip - equipment

to arrange, to require, to measure, to state, to develop

-sion [-Zn]

Mode1: to divide - division

to decide, to include, to conclude, to exclude

-ion [-(**ƒ**)n]

Model: to direct - direction

to subtract, to select, to react, to construct, to act

-ation [-ei**ƒ**n]

Model: to compute - computation

to inform, to combine, to determine, to represent, to differentiate, to integrate, to polarize

**7. Complete the following sentences:**

1. Information is a set of marks or signs that.... 2. Reasonable operations are.... 3. Logical operations include.... 4. A very important logical operation is.... 5. Physically the set of bits is a set of arrangements of some.... 6. Determining means which of two operations is to be performed.... 7. The computer must be told exactly which address contains ... and which contains ... .8. The computer is told what operations to perform by means of ... .9. Any information may be represented by the binary system including two digits: ... and... . 10. A bit is the smallest part of....

**8. Memorize the following definitions:**

1. Information is a set of marks or signs that have meaning. 2. Reasonable operations are mathematical and logical operations. 3. Mathematical operations include arithmetic and algebraic operations. 4. The smallest unit of information for a computer is called a byte. A byte consists of eight bits. 5. The word "bit" is formed from the letter "b" in the word "binary" and two letters "it" in the word "digit".

**9. Answer the following questions:**

1. What is information? 2. What does a set of marks consist of? 3. What is one of the ways of storing information in a computer? 4. What is a byte? 5. What is a bit? 6. How many bits does a byte usually contain? 7. What is an instruction? 8. By means of what is computer told what operations to perform? 9. What are machine words? 10. What does a machine word consist of? 11. What are addresses? 12. What are reasonable operations? 13. What do mathematical operations include? 14. What do logical operations include? 15. In what system is information represented for the modern electronic computer? 16. What are the two basic types of words that are put into a memory?

**10. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type:**

a) 1. What**kind** of computer was it? It was a digital computer. 2. The computer can perform different**kinds** of operations. 3. This**kind** of a logical problem is very simple. 4. Will you**kindly** explain to us the operation of this**kind**of a machine? Be so**kind,** show us the new equipment.

b) 1. **As** you already know logical relations in a computer are expressed by hardware. 2. **As** the ordinary business adding machine has the special equipment inside it, it can store information. 3. An electronic computer can add, subtract, multiply, and divide**as well.** 4. Natural sciences include mathematics, physics, chemistry, medicine, geology, biology, bionics,**as well as** the engineering sciences and other fields of knowledge. 5. **As** our professor was speaking of the history of computers, he mentioned P. L. Chebyshev and his great inventions. 6. My friend works at a plant **as** an engineer.

c) 1. Progressive people everywhere in the world must fight**for** peace. 2. Yesterday we heard an interesting lecture on modern electronics, which was arranged**for** the students. 3. He asked me**for** a book on microcomputers' organization. 4. The first computing machines were not reliable,**for** there were no good electrical units. 5. The instructions are placed inside the computer,**for** the computer itself can select the numbers of instructions.

**11. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the predicates in the Passive Voice:**

1. These digits are easily multiplied. 2. I was asked many questions about my work. 3. They were explained how to solve this problem on a computer. 4. The sequence of reasonable operations has been performed by the computer. 5. The new department of mathematics has just been opened. 6. Many books on computers' organization and architecture had been translated from Russian into English by the end of the last уеаг. 7. The experiments on the new microcomputer were being carried out during the whole month. 8. All the digits are recorded on the paper tape when addition is performed. 9. The new key adding machine was transferred into the next room yesterday. 10. The sequence of reasonable operations is now being carried out by this microcomputer. 11. The conference was addressed by a well-known scientist. 12. The invention of computers was spoken about at the last lecture. 13. Modern personal computers are always looked at with interest.14. Many new branches of industry have been developed in our country since World War II.

**12. Fill in the blanks with the verbs given below. Use them in the Passive Voice:**

*to express; to carry out; to invent; to record; to polarize; to tell; to store; to represent; to require; to construct*

1. All the digits inside the hardware ... by the arranging of the special equipment. 2. Complex calculations ... with the help of a computer. 3. A special counter wheel for an arithmometer ... by a Russian engineer V.T. Ordner in 1874. 4. The answers of computations ... often in the form of tables. 5. Small spots on a surface inside a computer ... magnetically. 6. By means of аn instruction any computer ... what operations to perform. 7. All instructions ... in registers, the units of hardware. 8. Any information ... by the binary system. 9. Numbers or instructions... for solving a problem by a computer. 10. Several computing units ... by M. V. Lomonosov for computational science.

**13. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the modal verbs and their equivalents:**

1. Information or data can be stored in the computer's memory or storage. 2. An analog computer is able to calculate by using physical analogs of numerical measurements 3. The first automatic computers could operate at the 1оw speed. 4. Your paper may be published at our Institute 5. My friend was happy when at last he might work at the computing centre. 6. Our students are allowed to visit the computing centre. 7. Every student must know that a digital computer performs reasonable operations. 8. Some operations for this computer have to be changed and new instructions have to be added. 9. The instructions are recorded in the order in which they are to be carried out. 10. You should know the difference between the digital and analog computers. 11. We ought to help him to solve this problem by a personal computer. 12. According to the time-table you are to begin your classes at 8 o'clock. 13. Every student of our speciality has to know what a hybrid computer is. 14. We were permitted to attend the conference on cybernetics [,saiba:'netiks].

**14. Find the sentences in which the verbs 'to have' and 'to be' are translated as «должен»:**

1. This ordinary adding machine has ten keys for each column of digits. 2. The main task of this article was to show the results of research work. 3. This personal computer has been constructed at our lab. 4. The lecture was to begin at 9 o'clock. 5. Our aim is to study hard and master our speciality. 6. Our lab assistant has to construct this electronic device. 7. The general purpose of this unit (block) is to perform different arithmetic operations. 8. The participants of the scientific conference are to arrive tomorrow. 9. You have to remember the names of the scientists who have contributed to the development of your speciality. 10. The results of the experiment have carefully been checked up today.

**15. Translate the following sentences paying attention to 'there + to be':**

1. There are many universities and institutes in our country. 2. There is a students' scientific and technical society at our Institute. 3. There are various computers at our computing centre. 4. There were only four departments in our Institute some years ago. 5. There will be some engineers at the seminar on programming tomorrow. 6. There is a seminar on history of Russia today. 7. There was a lecture on cybernetics yesterday. 8. There were many ways of solving the problem. 9. There are many complex parts and units in every computer. 10. There will be some new laboratories in our Institute next year.

Т. М. Лазарева, Н. С. Дельмухомедова, Н. В. Дерябина | Г. А. Жданова, О. В. Митякина, Н. В. Дерябина | УДК 811.111 (075) | Exercises | Grammar Review | Exercises | MEETING A FRIEND | Exercises | Grammar Review | Exercises |