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7. Переведіть такі пропозиції на російську мову.

Запам'ятайте: since - так як; оскільки; с, c тих пір, як; з часом

1. Only since 19 century A.D. people have begun to use petroleum as one of the most important sources of energy. 2. Since we know all the properties of this substance, we use it in our experiment. 3. We did not finish our work since we had no necessary mixture of fluids. 4. We have done many interesting investigations since the foundation of this research laboratory at our plant. 5. I have not carried out any experiments in the laboratory since I graduated from the Institute. 6. Since such applications did not require large amounts of oil, ancient people managed with oil they got from the surface seeps.

8. Переведіть пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на значення слів "only", "the only", "for".

Запам'ятайте: only - тільки

the only - єдиний

for - для, протягом; так як, оскільки, тому що

1. Only from ancient manuscript man has known about different properties of oil. 2. The only way to use petroleum in medicine is to study its curing properties. 3. Ancients used petroleum for the illumination of their dwellings. 4. For the purpose of illustration let us consider the chemical basis of oil. 5. The scientists have used this substance for it is more important. 6. For a long time the question of oil origin was not solved. 7. For oil does not conduct electricity, people use some of its products in the manufacturing of insulators. 8. The geological science has not yet given a clear explanation for the petroleum formation.

9. Переведіть такі пропозиції на російську мову.

Запам'ятайте: very (з прикметниками і говірками) - дуже

the very book - саме ця книга, та сама книга

1. Very often petroleum engineers drill deeper wells. 2. This is the very substance we need in our experiment. 3. This scientist knows the theory of organic origin of petroleum very well as he works very hard. 4. The very first step to use the scientific method is to obtain some facts by observation and experiment. 5. In the very nature petroleum is oily liquid. 6. In a very calm, shallow sea, dead plants and animals fell to the bottom.

10. Переведіть такі пропозиції на російську мову.

Запам'ятайте: because - тому що

because of - через

1. Petroleum is the most important fuel and energy source because of its high calorific value. 2. Petroleum has a characteristic smell because it contains small amount of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. 3. People used petroleum in everyday life because it is a cheap and efficient lubricant. 4. Scientists continue to discover new curing properties of oil because it is very important for medical treatment of many diseases.

11. Переведіть такі пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на переклад таких висловлювань: both - обидва

both ... and - також, як; як так і

1. Petroleum contains both the compounds of carbon and hydrogen. 2. The odour of petroleum depends both on the composition and quantity of hydrocarbons and other impurities. 3. Scientists admit both theories of petroleum origin - both an inorganic and organic. 4. As petroleum is a mixture of fluids, both liquid and gaseous, it often migrated far from the place where it originated.

12. Переведіть такі пропозиції на російську мову.

Пам'ятайте, що: present - даний

at present - в даний час

to present - представляти

to be present - бути присутнім

1. At present, petroleum is the most important fuel and energy source. 2. Smaller amounts of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen are present in petroleum. 3. This student presented the report on different properties of petroleum. 4. The teacher explained the Present Tense at the last lesson. 5. His present work is very important for the clear explanation of petroleum accumulation.

13. Підберіть до дієслів з лівої колонки відповідні іменники

з правої колонки. Переведіть словосполучення на російську мову.

1) to apply 1) hydrocarbons

2) to discover 2) petroleum

3) to accumulate 3) a well

4) to drill 4) sources of energy

5) to consist of 5) in geological traps

6) to contain 6) commercial production

7) to depend on 7) one's colour

8) to determine 8) calorific value

9) to dissolve 9) pressure and temperature

10) to increase 10) in water

11) large amounts of oil

14. Переведіть на російську мову пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на переклад

Cлово because і because of: Запам'ятайте, що because в поєднанні з прийменником of утворюють складовою привід because of - через, внаслідок, тому що.

1. Building engineers study geology because they must know the local ground, its composition and structure. 2. Engineers must know different control systems because of their wide use in the production and technological processes. 3. The oilmen could increase the production of oil because they used new methods of enhanced oil recovery. 4. The oilmen could increase the production of oil because of the favourable geological conditions.

15. Переведіть на російську мову словосполучення з as - як, як; так як; по

міру того, як; в той час як; як; коли.

as far as I know, as for me, as soon as, as a whole, as is known, as a rule, as well as,

as we know, as a lubricant, as we call it.

16. Запам'ятайте освіту ступенів порівняння прикметників в англійській

мовою:

deep deeper (than) the deepest

(Глибокий) (більш глибокий (ніж); (найглибший)

глибше (ніж))

important more important (than) the most important

(Важливий) (більш важливий (ніж)) (найважливіший)

good, well better (the) best

(Хороший, добре) (краще) (найкращий, найкраще)

bad, badly worse (the) worst

(Поганий, погано) (гірше) (найгірший, найгірше)

many, much more (the) most

(Багато) (більше) (найбільший, найбільше)

little less (the) least

(Маленький, мало) (менше) (найменший, найменший,

менше всього)

17. a) Переведіть на російську мову:

the best method, less than a month, more than a year, as large as, not so cheap as, the worst conditions, the most interesting fact, a very important discovery, the larger ...

the better, far more useful system, much more steel.

б) Переведіть на англійську мову:

найглибша свердловина; набагато краще; краще ніж; найважчі умови; такий же дешевий, як; не така багата, як; найкращі результати.

18. Напишіть наступні прикметники в позитивній ступеня:

the highest, more, the most useful, bigger, more powerful, the cheapest, the nearest, less, the worst, the least, the best, much greater, shorter, less difficult, the most reliable.

19. Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову, звертаючи увагу на переклад

прикметників в порівняльній і найвищому ступенях.

1. Only since 19 century A.D. people have begun to use petroleum as one of the most important sources of energy. 2. Very often petroleum engineers drill deeper wells. 3. The deepest wells reach gigantic depths of 10,000 and even more metres. 4. Besides, oil often contains smaller amounts of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. 5. The heavier the oil the darker is the colour. 6. Oil is much lighter than water. 7. At present, petroleum is the most important fuel and energy source.

20. Переведіть текст:

PETROLEUM

As we know from ancient manuscripts man first began to apply petroleum already some centuries B.C. Ancient people knew different properties of oil and used it for various purposes. They caulked their ships and boats with oil and made their cloths waterproof. They used petroleum as a cheap and efficient lubricant. Ancients discovered curing properties of oil and used it in medical treatment of some diseases. Besides, they utilized petroleum for the illumination of their dwellings and even as the incendiaries in frequent war battles. Since such application did not require large amounts of oil ancient people managed with oil they got from the surface seeps.

Only since 19 century A.D. people have begun to use petroleum as one of the most important sources of energy. The commercial production of this valuable fuel has led to the development of modern petroleum industry.

Petroleum or as we often call it oil is a combustible oily liquid which occurs in sedimentary rocks of the Earth's crust. Petroleum usually forms and accumulates in geological traps at the depths of 1,200 -2,000 m and deeper. Very often petroleum engineers drill deeper wells (up to 6,000 m). The deepest wells that are not so numerous reach gigantic depths of 10,000 and even more metres.

Petroleum is a liquid which consists of different hydrocarbons, i.e. compounds of carbon and hydrogen. Besides, oil often contains smaller amounts of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. Petroleum is a substance with a characteristic smell. The odour of petroleum depends on the nature, composition and quantity of hydrocarbons and different impurities. The colour of oil varies from light brown to dark brown, nearly black. Specific gravity of oil determines its colour. The heavier the oil the darker is the colour. Oil is much lighter than water. It does not dissolve in water and forms a thin rainbow film on its surface. For oil does not conduct electricity, people use some of its products in manufacturing of insulators. All sorts of petroleum are combustible. At present, petroleum is the most important fuel and energy source because of its high calorific value.

The geological science has not yet given a clear explanation for the petroleum formation. Most scientists, however, admit the organic origin of petroleum. They believe that carbon and hydrogen, i.e., the chemical basis of any oil, came from sea and land plants and animals as a result of their decomposition. In a very calm, shallow sea, dead plants and animals fell to the bottom. The accumulation of thick layers of silt above the organic matter led to an increase in temperature and rise in pressure - conditions under which liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons formed. As petroleum is a mixture of fluids, both liquid and gaseous, it often migrated far from the place where it originated.

Notes

B.C. 'Bi:' si: = Before Christ bi'f: 'kraist - до нашої ери

A.D. 'Ei' di: = Anno Domini "nou 'd minai - нашої ера

i. e. 'Ai' i: = that is 't is - тобто

21. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:

1.When did man first begin to apply petroleum? 2. How did ancient people use petroleum? 3. What factor has led to the development of modern petroleum industry?

4. How can one define petroleum? 5. Where does petroleum form and accumulate?

6. Does petroleum consist of different hydrocarbons? 7. What impurities does petroleum often contain? 8. On what factors does the odour of petroleum depend? 9. Is the color of oil always dark brown? 10. What determines its colour? 11. What is the dependence of the colour of oil on its specific gravity? 12. Are all sorts of petroleum combustible?

13. Is there a clear explanation for the petroleum formation? 14. Do all scientists admit the organic origin of petroleum?

22. Перекажіть текст, використовуючи питання вправи 21.

23. 1) Прослухайте слова. Запам'ятайте їх.

oily - маслянистий to be concentrated - зосереджуватися

liquid - рідина distincitive - відмітний, характерний

exclusively - виключно to explore - дослідити

odour - запах twelve-fold bigger - в 12 разів більше

to disolve - розчиняти to consider - вважати, думати

to climb - підніматися molecular weight - молекулярна вага

remote - віддалений epoch - епоха

to amount to = to reach - досягати

2) Прослухайте текст і озаглавьте його.

Petroleum is an oily combustible liquid. It is usually dark in colour and has a distinctive odour. It is much lighter than water and does not dissolve in water.

There are several theories of the origin of oil, as petroleum is often called. Many soientists consider that petroleum was formed in remote epochs by the decomposition of plant and animal organisms out of contact with air.

In tsarist Russia the petroleum industry was concentrated almost exclusively in the Caucasus. In Soviet years many new deposits have been explored. As a result, petroleum production has increased. In 1958 production was more than twelve-fold bigger than in 1913 amounting to 113 million tons. In 1963 it reached 206 million tons a year. By 1 980 the production had climbed to 700 million tons a year Oil production kept rising from the 1950s up to the 1980s. In 1989 oil production amounted to 552 million tons, in 2002 it amounted to 379 million tons ..

Like natural gas, petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons, only of higher molecular weight. Petroleum consists for the most part of liquid hydrocarbons, but there are gaseous and solid hydrocarbons dissolved in them.

3.) Прослухайте уривок з тексту і дайте відповідь на питання.

Petroleum is an oily combustible liquid. It is usually dark in colour and has a distincitive odour. It is much lighter than water and does not dissolve in water.

1. What is petroleum? 2. What colour is petroleum? 3. Has petroleum an odour? 4. Does petroleum dissolve in water?

4) Закінчить наступні пропозиції, вибравши один із запропонованих варіантів.

1. There are several theories of ... a) the discovery of oil;

b) the origin of oil;

c) the composition of oil.

2. Many scientists consider that petroleum was formed ...

a) in remote epochs; b) not long ago; c) in 19th century.

3. Many scientists consider that petroleum was formed by ...

a) the decomposition of plant and animal organisms in contact with air;

b) the decomposition of plant and animal organisms out of contact with air;

c) the decomposition of plant and animal organisms in contact with water;

5). Прослухайте уривок і виберіть пропозицію, точно передає його основну думку.

In tsarist Russia the petroleum industry was concentrated almost exclusively in the Caucasus. In Soviet years many new deposits have been explored. As a result, petroleum production has increased. In 1958 production was more than twelve-fold bigger than in 1913 amounting to 113 million tons. In 1963 it reached 206 million tons a year. By 1 980 the production had climbed to 700 million tons a year. Oil production kept rising from the 1950s up to the 1980s. In 1989 oil production amounted to 552 million tons, in 2002 it amounted to 379 million tons.

1. In the Soviet years petroleum production has increased.

2. By 1980 production had climbed to 700 million tons a year.

6) Прослухайте два варіанти одного і того ж уривка. Знайдіть розбіжності між варіантами.

1. Like natural gas, petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons, only of higher molecular weight. It consists for the most part of liquid hydrocarbons, but there are gaseous and solid hydrocarbons dissolved in them.

2. Like natural gas, petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons, only of lighter molecular weight. It consists of liquid hydrocarbons Gaseous and solid hydrocarbons do not dissolve in them.

24. Англійський гумор:

IN THE COMPANY OF STUDENTS

- What's your father, Bobby?

- My father's a college professor.

- That's a good profession. Does he like it?

- He has only one thing to complain about.

- What's that?

- Oh, the students.

 * * *

Father: You know that mother is very angry when you get bad marks at college.

Son: Well, it's not me who is to blame for it's the teacher who puts bad marks.

 * * *

A son at college wrote his father: "No mon, no fun, your son".

The father answered: "How sad, too bad, your dad".

1) He has only one thing to complain about. - У нього всього лише одна скарга.

2) it's not me who is to blame - я в цьому не винен

3) mon = money

25. Продовжіть діалог, використовуючи запропоновані нижче вирази:

as is known, by the way, from my point of view, generally speaking, I'd like to say a few words about, it should be taken into consideration, to sum it up.

A: Hullo, Bobby. What's the news?

B: Hullo, Ann. How are you? You known, I've read an interesting article in the magazine

"Oil and gas". It's about the history of petroleum industry in the USA.

A: Is it really so? How very interesting: I'd like to known some more facts about it.

Could you tell me a few words about oil and its origin? I am going to enter Ufa

Petroleum University this year.

B: With pleasure ...

26. Розкажіть про історію видобутку нафти, її фізичні і хімічні властивості,

її походження. Використовуйте активну лексику уроку і наступні

словосполучення:

ancient people knew, curing properties of oil, no search for oil, wells were sunk, seepages, one of the most important sources of energy, in sedimentary rocks, in geological traps, at the depth, a combustible oily liquid, smaller amounts of sulphur , a characteristic smell, the colour of oil varies, much lighter than, it does not dissolve in ..., the organic origin of petroleum.

УРОК 4

Граматика: 1. Відо-часові форми дієслів.

2. Модальні дієслова, їх еквіваленти.

3. Кількісні займенники little, few, a little, a few.

Текст: Natural Gas.

1. Прочитайте вголос наступні слова:

- Rush, under, production, industry, other;

- Borehole, form, source, porous, important;

- Obtain, remain, mainly;

- Inflammable, sandstone, extraction, natural;

- Reach, field, region;

- Internal, occur, German, network;

- Advantage, France, Carpathian, example;

- Either, gigantic, pipeline, limestone;

- Austria, deposit, approximately, volume.

2. Прочитайте вголос наступні слова. Запам'ятайте їх вимову.

Carpathian mountains, Europe; Romania; Austria; France; Italy

acetylene - ацетилен

butane - бутан

carbon - вуглець

chlorine - хлор

ethane - етан

hexane - гексан

hydrogen - водень

methane - метан, болотний газ

octane - октан

propane - пропан

pentane - пентан

per cent - відсоток

3. Запам'ятайте наступні слова і словосполучення:

accumulate - накопичувати

approximately - приблизно, наближено

boiling point - точка кипіння

borehole - свердловина

consist of - складатися з

decomposition - розкладання, розпад

deposit - родовище, поклад

distinct - особливий, певний

derivative - похідне

extraction - витяг, видобуток

fuel - паливо, пальне

inflammable - легко запалюється, вогненебезпечний

limestone - вапняк

liquid - рідина

natural gas - природний газ

network - мережа

occur - залягати

obtain - отримувати

pressure - тиск

porous bed - пористий шар

rush - зд. хлинути

source - джерело

sandstone - піщаник

volume - обсяг, маса (будь-л. речовини)

4. Підберіть з правої колонки правильний переклад англійських слів і словосполучень:

1) occur 1) родовище

2) deposit 2) джерело

3) animal and vegetable remains 3) проникати

4) source 4) залягати, зустрічатися

5) penetrate 5) рослинні і тваринні залишки

6) under great pressure 6) горючий

7) borehole 7) рідкі та тверді види палива

8) inflammable 8) видобуток

9) liquid and solid fuels 9) під високим тиском

10) extraction 10) свердловина

5. Переведіть на російську мову такі поєднання слів без словника:

animal and vegetable remains; under great pressure; several boreholes; network of pipelines; low boiling point; 85 per cent; distinct odour; a great amount of heat; numerous new sources; to obtain new materials; over a period of many centuries; over long distances; inflammable gas.

6. Визначте значення підкреслених слів за подібністю їх коренів з корінням відповідних слів в російській мові;

natural deposit, separate deposit, porous beds, long distance, gigantic network, typical natural gas, gaseous fuel, raw material, chemical technologist, extraction of oil, reserves of natural gas.

7. Визначте по суффиксам, якою частиною мови є такі слова, і переведіть їх на російську мову:

pore- porosity- porous; collect-collection- collective; approximate- approximately- approximation; chemist-chemistry-chemical; gas- gaseous- gasify-gasification; derive-derivative-derivable; extract- extraction- extractive; utilize-utilization; numerous-numerously; intense- intensification-intensify-intensity-intensive; penetrate-penetration.

8. Визначте значення слова "volume" в контексті (volume - тому; обсяг).

1.Our university has a library of many volumes of Russian and foreign scientific books and journals. 2. A great volume of gas penetrates into porous beds of sand, sandstone and limestone. 3. As is known, for volume of chemical production this plant is one of the leading ones in our country.

9. Переведіть такі пропозиції. Пам'ятайте, що:

a few - кілька вживається з обчислюваними

few - мало іменниками

a little - трохи вживається з неісчісляемимі

little - мало іменниками

1. We have little information of this discovery. 2. We must add a little water to make this substance melt. 3. Scientists opened a few new sources of gas in Europe. 4. There are few uses of natural gas in industry. 5. A few years ago we utilized this device in our laboratory. 6. As I had little time I could not get reliable information about this deposit of gas. 7. Little of natural gas we may use chemically. 8. Butane, pentane, hexane, and a few other gases may also be present.

10. Переведіть такі пропозиції на російську мову.

Запам'ятайте: both - обидва

both ... and - як ... так і

either - будь-який

either ... or - або ... або

1. Natural gas either occurs together with crude oil or forms separate deposits of gas alone. 2. Either of these properties can be used in this analysis. 3. Natural gas may be used either as fuel or heat in our everyday life. 4. Most of natural gas we may use as a fuel for the production of both heat and energy. 5. Decomposition of both animal and vegetable remains over a period of many centuries without air is the source of natural gas. 6. Both the pressure and volume of a gas can be changed. 7. Both characteristics of the state of a gas are very important for the experiments. 8. Homogeneous materials may be classified either into compounds and elements or into solutions.

11. Переведіть такі пропозиції. Визначте значення слова like в контексті (like - любити, подобатися, так же само, як).

1. Like all gaseous fuels natural gas has great advantages over liquid and solid fuels.

2. The engineer whom we met at the laboratory has three sons. His elder son is taking a course at the Petroleum University. Like his father he is going to become a petroleum engineer. He looks like his father. He likes his future speciality. 3. The level of petroleum education like that of all other types of education has grown manyfold.

12. Підберіть до дієслів з лівої колонки відповідні іменники з правої колонки. Переведіть словосполучення на російську мову.

1) to occur 1) into porous beds

2) to form 2) together with crude oil

3) to accumulate 3) natural deposits

4) to reach 4) in large quantities

5) to consist of 5) hydrocarbons

6) to make up 6) oil and gas

7) to be present 7) 90 per cent

8) to utilize 8) a great depth

9) to discover 9) as a raw material

10) in the field

13. Переведіть на російську мову пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на переклад парних спілок either ... or (або .. або; або ... або), both ... and (як ... так і

і ... і):

1. Natural gases either occurs together with oil or forms separate deposits of gas alone. 2. The density of gases is measured either with special gas pycnometers or by the effusion method. 3. The state of a gas is characterized both by pressure-temperature and volume. 4. A field may be either a single pool or it may consist of two or more pools, all of, or related to, the same geologic structure. 5. Both oil and gas are naturally occurring mixtures of mainly hydrogen and carbon compounds. 6. Oil may be displaced from sand by either water or gas. 7. Oil and gas are used both as the fuel and chemicals. 8. Generally oil seeps are either up-dips or seepage along a fracture.

14. Переведіть такі пропозиції на російську мову, звертаючи увагу на багатозначність слова one. Назвіть номери пропозицій, в яких one виступає замінником раніше згаданого іменника.

1. The training of petroleum engineers and geologists includes a comprehensive study of general subjects as well as specialized ones. 2. One can see modern computers at every laboratory. 3. A new method of oil production is more effective than the one we used some years ago. 4. Russia has always been one of the predominant oil and gas producing countries. 5. Liquids or gases are injected into the common reservoir through one or more injection wells. 6. Oil may be displaced from sand by any one, or a combination of three mechanisms. 7. The earth's crust is the zone on which we live and the one accessible for our investigation. 8. One of the earliest patents for an "offshore" drilling rig was issued to T.F. Rowland in 1869. 9. Man, for one reason or another, has since the earliest known times been digging holes in the earth's surface.

15. Заповніть пропуски в пропозиціях, вказавши потрібне слово: little, a little, few, a few. (Там, де це можливо, дайте два варіанти пропозиції).

1. There are ... things here which I can not understand. 2. Have you got ... ink in your fountain-pen? 3. When we walked ... farther down the road we met another group of students. 4. If you have ... spare time, go through this book. You will find ... articles there which are rather interesting. 5. Has Russia much or ... natural gas?

16. Запам'ятайте модальнідієслова і їх еквіваленти:

 Еквіваленти модальних дієслів
   Теперішній час  Пршедшее час  будующее час
 can -мочьcould - міг  am able tois able toare able to  was able towere able to  shall be able towill be able to
 may -мочьmight - міг  am allowed tois allowed toare allowed to  was allowed towere allowed to  shall be allowed towill be allowed to
 Must-повинен should - повинен, слід  have tohas to (змушений, доводиться) am tois toare to (повинен за домовленістю, планом)  had to was towere to  shall have towill have to

Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову, звертаючи увагу на час, виражене формою модального дієслова або його еквівалента.

1. You must come to the Institute in time. 2. You may send the documents to the Institute. 3. All the students are allowed to make experiments in the laboratory. 4. This plant is to begin its work at the end of the month. 5. You should read the text once more. 6. You'll have to do this work again. 7. We were to meet at the station. 8. If you can not make the experiment yourself, you should consult your teaching assistant. 9. You could go there yesterday. 10. They might take the books when they were at the library. 11. I shall be able to read your paper tomorrow. 12. First you must study the laboratory instruction and only then you can begin the experiment. 13. We can produce heat by burning oil, gas or any other fuel. 14. He had to pass his last exam once again, because he could not write the test.

17. Вставте пропущену форму модального дієслова або еквівалента. Дайте кілька варіантів там, де це можливо.

1. ... I consult the dictionary? 2. You ... not do this work alone. 3. I ... swim well. 4. The plant ... be built in time. 5.We ... not ... to stay here for a long time. 6. You ... not be late. 7.Does he ... to come there? 8. ... we leave already? 9. ... we cross the street here? 10. ... they write the words in their work- books? 11. ... you begin the tests last week?




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