Read the following text and fill in the gaps with the following words:
|design chemical analysis branches expensiveproducts|
Chemical Engineeringdeveloped in the nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution. Industrial manufacturing demanded new materials and new processes and by 1880 the need for large scale production of chemicals was such that a new industry was created. The role of the (1) __________ engineer was the design of these chemical plants and processes.
Aeronautical Engineering deals with aircraft (2) __________. Its origins can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the turn of the century from the 19th century to the 20th. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other (3) __________ of engineering. Aerospace engineering is a more modern term that expands the reach envelope of the discipline by including spacecraft design. This includes the design of aircraft, spacecraft and related topics.
Forensic Engineering is the study of failed (4) __________ . It can help the product designer in evaluating his or her design in the light of real conditions. The discipline is of greatest value after disasters, such as bridge collapses, when careful (5) __________ is needed to establish the cause or causes of the failure.
Computer Engineering plays an increasingly important role in our modern world. As well as the typical business application software there are a number of computer aided applications (Computer-aided technologies) specifically for engineering. Computers can be used to generate models of fundamental physical processes, which can be solved using numerical methods. One of the most widely used tools in the profession is computer-aided design (CAD) software which enables engineers to create 3D models. CAD allows engineers to create models of designs that can be analyzed without having to make (6) __________ physical prototypes.
There are also many tools to support specific engineering tasks such as Computer-aided manufacture (CAM) software, Computer Numerical Control (CNC) software, Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) software and others. In recent years the use of computer software to aid the development of goods has collectively come to be known as Product Lifecycle Management (PLM).
|body engineer human development solutions biological|
Medical and Biological Engineering deals with study of the human (7) __________. Medicine aims to sustain, enhance and even replace functions of the (8) __________ body, if necessary, through the use of technology. Modern medicine can replace several of the body's functions through the use of artificial organs and can alter the function of the human body through artificial devices such as implants. The fields of Bionics and medical Bionics are dedicated to the study of synthetic implants pertaining to natural systems.
Some engineering disciplines view the human body as a (9) __________ machine. This has led to fields such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, fuzzy logic, and robotics.
Medicine, in part, studies the function of the human body. The human body, as a biological machine, has many functions that can be modeled using Engineering methods. The heart for example functions much like a pump, the skeleton is like a linked structure with levers, the brain produces electrical signals etc. These similarities as well as the increasing importance and application of Engineering principles in Medicine, led to the development of the field of biomedical engineering that uses concepts developed in both disciplines.
Both fields provide (10) __________ to real world problems.
Art Engineering includes architecture, landscape architecture and industrial design. The Art Institute of Chicago, for instance, held an exhibition about the art of NASA's aerospace design. Robert Maillart's bridge design is perceived by some to have been deliberately artistic. At the University of South Florida, an engineering professor, through a grant with the National Science Foundation, has developed a course that connects art and engineering. Among famous historical figures Leonardo Da Vinci is a well known Renaissance artist and (11) __________ , and a prime example of the connection between art and engineering.
Social Engineering.By its very nature engineering is closely connected with society and human behavior. Every product or construction used by modern society will have been influenced by engineering design. Engineering design is a very powerful tool to make changes to environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a great responsibility. Most of engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the public at large.
Engineering is a key driver of human (12) __________ . Sub-Saharan Africa in particular has a very small engineering capacity which results in many African nations being unable to develop crucial infrastructure without outside aid. The attainment of many of the Millennium Development Goals requires the achievement of sufficient engineering capacity to develop infrastructure and sustainable technological development.
Today there are a lot of charitable organizations which aim is to use engineering directly for the good of mankind. Among these organizations are the following ones: Engineers Without Borders, Engineers Against Poverty, Registered Engineers for Disaster Relief, Engineers for a Sustainable World.
Political Engineering deals with forming political structures using engineering methodology and political science principles.
СОДЕРЖАТЕЛЬНЫЙ АСПЕКТ | I N S T R U C T I O N S | ENGINEERING IN OUR LIFE | Match the words with their definitions. | HISTORY OF ENGINEERING. | PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS | WHILE-LISTENING | TYPES OF ENGINEERING | MAIN BRANCHES OF ENGINEERING | CIVIL ENGINEERING |