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1. After entering the soil the water particle moves downwards.

2. Before considering the development of the earth's oceans and the origin of life in those oceans, we should attempt to gain an understanding of what is known of the relationship of the earth to the cosmos.

3. Human activity, however, has upset the natural way flooding occurs by walling off rivers and straightening their courses.

4. By increasing the acidity of surface waters acid rain can kill fish and other fresh water life.

5. Since the water cycle is truly a "cycle" there is no beginning or end.


, .

1. Theoretical methods for determining evaporation rates have followed two lines of approach.

2. Fog or low stratus with drizzle result from air mass mixing or warm advection.

3. This method is generally satisfactory for routine forecasting.

4. Vertical mixing has the effect of averaging these conditions through the layer affected.

5. Show occurs when the aggregations of ice crystals do not have time to melt before reaching the ground.


. .

: When we convert water into ice we do not change its composition. -On (in) converting water into ice we do not change its composition.

1. When minute ice crystals have formed they grow rapidly by deposition from vapour.

2. When we subject air to very great pressure and cooling it is possible to transform it to the liquid state.

3. When sea salts burst the air bubbles they enter the atmosphere.


, , -ing , .

1. Hailstones may fall considerable distances without melting.

2. The key to the understanding of condensation lies in the fine balance between these variables.

3. The depression usually achieves its maximum intensity 12-24 hours after the beginning of occlusion.

4. Anabatic winds result from greater heating of the valley sides compared with the valley floor.

5. The sky may clear very abruptly even before the passing of the surface cold front.

6. A drop of 1 mm radius falls 42 km before evaporating.

7. Typical wind speeds may be increased where low-level temperature inversion produces a Venturi effect in constricting and accelerating the floor.

8. The freezing of supercooled water drops may also produce ice splinters.


, 䳺:

to vaporize to burst to overcome to understand to define to express to heat to move.


1. Sea salts enter the atmosphere by () the air bubbles.

2. Energy is required in ( ) intermodular attraction.

3. The rate of () depends on a number of factors.

4. This is of importance in () the behaviour of upper winds.

5. These forces prevent air from () directly across the isobars.

6. () from below acts to increase air-mass instability.

7. Penman succeeded in () evaporation losses in terms of four meteorological elements.

8. For this purpose he suggested () convective condensation level.


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1. This energy is generally provided by the removal of heat from the immediate surroundings causing an apparent heat loss.

2. The mixing of the differing layers within a single air mass can also produce condensation.

3. The maximum velocity occurs just before sunrise at the time of the maximum diurnal cooling.

4. The displacement of an air parcel causes an increase in its volume and a consequent lowering of its temperature.

5. Such a temperature change, involving no subtraction or addition of heat, is termed adiabatic.


䳺 Gerund Indefinite Active, Gerund Indefinite Passive.

It's worth noting ... -it's worth being noted ...; it's provided on removing ... -it's provided on being removed ...; they enter by bursting ... -they enter by being burst ...; it prevents from heating ... -it prevents from being heated ...; he objected reading ... -he objected to being read ...


-ing .

1. It is worth noting that in the middle latitudes the Coriolis deflection causes turning of a well developed onshore sea breeze.

2. The advancing cool sea air may form a front.

3. The vertical expansion of the air column occurring daily during the hours of heating, tilts the isobaric surfaces.

4. At night the air over the sea is warmer because of the downslope winds blowing off the land.

5. A broad grouping can be made according to the mechanism of vertical motion.

6. The stability produced by the effect of surface cooling prevents vertical mixing so that further cooling occurs more slowly.

7. If an air parcel is impelled downwards it will become colder than its surroundings.

8. A well-marked low-level temperature inversion produces a Venturi effect in constricting and accelerating the flow.

9. Programs aimed at increasing winter snowfall by seeding cyclonic storms regard the rain- (or snow-) making as routine operations.

10. Eventually the mixing and modification necessarily accompanying the air mass movement will cause the rate of energy exchange with surrounding to diminish.

11. This convection is due to the cooling of the fog top by radiation into space.


, .

1. In recent times, this has been taken as implying mainly the emission of "greenhouse gases" into the atmosphere, usually by burning fossil fuels.

2. If humans change the composition of the atmosphere, say by burning fossil fuels which release carbon dioxide, then more energy goes into the atmosphere than would have otherwise.

3. One author stated that decreased nocturnal cooling may never have been considered in any debate about global warming.

4. While Earth cools much more efficiently at night at the surface, the better cooling does not continue into the upper troposphere very well.

5. The more efficient cooling at night is due almost entirely to the absence of sunlight.

6. During the day, the warming offsets the cooling.

7. Instead of describing the average climate, or even the natural variability of climate, climate change studies try to quantify differences or trends.

8. Much of the interest in studying climate change is motivated by the idea that human activity has changed and will continue to change the climate.

9. When the composition of the atmosphere changes, for example by changing the carbon dioxide concentration, the radiative properties of the atmosphere might also change.

10. We will focus on feedbacks and processes that are thought important in both stabilizing and amplifying changes to the global climate.

11. Conservation of energy means that the total amount of energy does not change, which is equivalent to saying that any energy that is input to the system must be balanced by an outward flux of energy.


, .

1. Clearing up air pollution is one of the principal environmental tasks (aims) of a scientist.

2. Cooling may be caused by radiation by contact with cold surfaces, by mixing masses of air of different temperatures.

3. One method of obtaining salt is allowing water to evaporate.

4. The aim of our expedition was exploring the floor of the Pacific Ocean.

5. The process of changing iron ore into iron takes place in a blast furnace ( ).

6. Nobody knew of their having returned from the expedition.

7. When large ice masses reach the warmer lower altitudes they stop advancing and begin to melt.

8. Going from high to low latitudes involves passing from regions of minimum to regions of maximum chemical weathering.

9. One of the most important things is providing information for planning and development of safe arid adequate water supply in locations that will serve as populated areas.

10. If the weight of the ground is increased by its being saturated with water during a period of heavy rains or melting snow, it may result in widespread slides.

11. The size of the crystals in an igneous rock depends on its rate of cooling.

12. After having studied hundreds of sections of rock we may learn the extent of the area over which a bed was deposited.

13. One of the major aims of man is providing information for the development of adequate water supplies in locations that will serve as population areas.

14. Estimating the time that has elapsed since the continental glaciers entirely disappeared from Europe and North America is impossible.


, .

1. By analysing the statistical properties of hydroiogic records, such as rainfall or river flow hydrologists can estimate future hydroiogic phenomena.

2. With an understanding of how changes in the environment affect the movement of water, hydrologists can also construct models to predict how these changes will happen in the future.

3. Natural refilling of deep aquifers is a slow process because ground water moves slow through the unsaturated zone and the aquifer.

4. Dams are useful in many ways, such as: providing hydro-electric power; acting as regulator of river flow so as to regulate the occurrence of flooding.

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