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Тренировочные упражнения


Упражнение 1.

Переведите следующие упражнения на русский язык:

1. In humid coastal areas winter temperatures are much higher than those found in the drier regions of the continental interior.

2. The process of evaporation is complex, and various factors that affect it are difficult to estimate.

3. It is obvious that the internal circulation of the ocean must be related to the oceanic structure.

4. Experience has shown that the discharge is seldom as great as that given by the equation.

5. It is the oxygen we breathe that keeps us alive.

6. If one is to make the best use of the land, the crops one grows in the different regions should be well adapted to the climates of those areas.

7. The one factor whose influence is best known and which comes nearest to accounting for the known variations of the larger kind is the one having to do with the changing surface features of the earth.

8. One should look at such empirical equation as a mathematical description of the original chart.

Упражнение 2.

Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод усилительных (эмфатических) конструкций.

1. It was this project that brought this field of scientific inquiry to its present level.

2. It is physics that has given us mechanical and electrical inventions of the modern world;

3. It was only in 1840 that official records of temperature, rainfall and so on began to be kept, at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London.

4. Very seldom do these thunderstorms contain hail.

5. The results of this study did show the crossover effect on frequent occasions.

6. It is by radiation that the earth receives its heat from the sun.

7. It is the weight of air that gives rise to atmospheric pressure.

Упражнение 3.

Переведите предложения, учитывая различные значения it.

1. It is possible to observe sunrise and sunsets on Mars just as on the Earth.

2. It seems quite certain that in the nearest future, man's action will be able to influence future climate.

3. High above the ground this wind blows so strongly that it is called the jet stream.

4. It is seen from the definition of relative humidity that it can be increased either by adding more water vapour or decreasing the «saturation specific humidity».

Упражнение 4.

Переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения that.

1. Chemists tell us that, out of 100 parts of atmospheric air, 99.5 consist of oxygen and nitrogen.

2. The lunar day is 24 hours and 50 minutes. That is, the moon passes a given location on earth once in that period of time.

3. The weight of the atmosphere is equal to that of a solid globe of lead sixty miles in diameter.

4. The atmosphere feeds the flame of life exactly as it does that of the fire.

5. Air density, typically of the order of 1/1000 of that of water near the ground, is almost never.

Упражнение 5.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, в которых используются местоимения that, one в функции заместителей имени существительного.

1. Runoff expressed in inches was not large when compared with that in the humid eastern regions.

2. The rivers most prone to flooding are those flowing over flat, glacial lake beds.

3. The greatest flood on record is that of 1881.

4. The friction due to ice cover is very much greater that that due to air.

5. Other large and important artesian wells are those on the eastern slope of the Appalachian Mountains.

6. This lake and the one mentioned above have been badly polluted by acid rains.

7. Floats may be classed as surface and subsurface ones.

Упражнение 6.

Переведите следующие предложения, обращая на способы перевода местоимения it.

1. First of all it was necessary to collect as many precipitation data as possible.

2. It is clear that flood protection measures should be given due attention.

3. Water is evaporated from the earth's surface into the atmosphere where it is stored from some time.

4. It is difficult to say which one of these three flows is the most important.

5. Thus it is seen that the limitation by the plants and the soil on the evaporation often extends the true evaporating surface.

6. It seems, in the final analysis, that the evaporation from land surfaces can become as involved as an investigator wishes to make it.

Упражнение 7.

Переведите предложения, уделяя внимание усилительной конструкции.

1. It is this factor that affects surface runoff most of all.

2. It is by evaporation that moisture is returned to the air.

3. It appears that it is the flow of heat to the surface rather than the vapour flow that is the rate-limiting factor for evaporation.

4. It is only by changing the moisture entering the air over land that the total moisture received by the air can be changed, as runoff reaching the ocean does not essentially affect its evaporating area or rate of evaporation.

5. It was not until the 20-th century that the world network of hydrologic observatories was set up.

Упражнение 8.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. New springs may also be created or old ones permanently altered.

2. One of the common processes in the weathering of rocks is hydration.

3. In connection with what was said above, one may make a few remarks regarding the notation of "storage coefficient".

Упражнение 9.

Переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения that.

1. Meteorologists and atmospheric scientists often say that climate is what you expect; weather is what you get.

2. Although dynamical systems, like Earth's climate system, are full of complicated processes that lead to chaotic variations, changes to external forcing of the system can lead to significant changes.

3. Some gases, like carbon dioxide, have molecular structure that allows the absorption of certain wavelengths of light. In the case of "greenhouse gases," that means absorbing infrared radiation.

4. The distinguishing characteristic of a greenhouse gas is that it absorbs infrared radiation better than it does visible radiation; this allows sunlight to penetrate through the gas (the atmosphere) and warm Earth's surface.

5. The ever-increasing tendency away from regular day-night cycles of work, play and sleep means that at night, the time when our Earth should be shedding its excess heat, we are still adding to it.

6. That means that most of the energy from the cooling will still end up where it would during the day: either absorbed in the troposphere or emitted to space.

7. Also, the argument seems to imply that increased nocturnal activity by humans makes the cooling less efficient, but it is an extremely small effect.

8. Physical and computer models built to predict climate change are based on evidence gathered from glacial geologists and quaternary geologists, that infer, with varying degrees of precision, the Earth's climate history.

9. The equations of motion are the same fundamental equations that govern all classical fluid dynamics, much of energy transfer is based on well-known principles of radiative transfer and nuclear physics and spectrometry, and a lot of observations are based on geological, chemical and biological processes and methods.

10. Much of the interest in studying climate change is motivated by the idea that human activity has changed and will continue to change the climate.

11. In the absence of an atmosphere, Earth would look a lot like a black body radiator; that is to say, the sun would shine on Earth, which would warm to an equilibrium temperature, and then a balance would be struck.

12. Mostly due to the fact that Earth is so small and intercepts so little of the total energy emitted from the sun, that radiative equilibrium temperature is much lower than the sun's temperature.

13. This process, whereby energy that is emitted from the surface is absorbed by the atmosphere which then emits energy back toward the surface, is called the greenhouse effect, and it is one of the basic feedback processes in the climate system.

14. The energy flux incident at the Earth is the solar constant, but notice that the solar flux would not fall evenly on the surface of the planet.

15. The light that reaches the sun arrives over a broad range of frequencies, but the peak frequencies are in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

16. Kepler showed that orbits are ellipses, rather than perfect circles.

Упражнение 10.

Переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения that.

1. That is to say, where the sun shines has a direct impact on weather and climate.

2. The principle is simply that the curvature of the Earth means that the same radiance (or photon flux or sunshine) gets spread over a larger area as the angle between the photons and the normal to the surface increases from zero to 90 degrees at the poles.

3. From everyday experience, we know that the sun appears at different distances above the horizon over the course of the day.

4. Define a new angle, that between Earth's equator and the highest local position of the sun (the position at local noon), and call this the declination angle; it is essentially a measure of the height above the horizon that the sun will reach each day, and is equal to the latitude at which the sun is directly overhead at noon.

5. This includes not-so-distant climates, like that of the "little ice age," and also the global-scale oscillations known as ice ages.

6. Note that the science of climate prediction differs fundamentally from that of weather prediction.

7. First of all, we restrict ourselves to numerical models, specifically those designed to be solved with computers.

8. More generally, any equation or set of equations that represents the climate system is a climate model. Some of these can be solved analytically, but those are highly simplified models, which are sometimes incorporated in numerical models.

9. Those sediments are deposited downstream, and over time they are compacted and form sedimentary rocks.

10. Those combining planetary science with geologic evidence have significant findings suggesting that our present inter-glacial period has not peaked.

11. While the case of Earth's climate is unlikely to be that sensitive, it does mean that we shouldn't expect a perfect long-term (greater than 2 weeks) weather forecast to be on the local television station any time soon (or ever).

12. That interaction between photons and molecules increases the temperature of the atmosphere, which then emits at a slightly different wavelength.

13. We know that the atmosphere consists primarily of the gaseous envelop around Earth, and that pressure decreases with height, according to the hydrostatic approximation.

14. The amount that is radiated to space (which differs from that emitted by the surface because of the greenhouse effect) is often called outgoing longwave radiation (OLR).

15. Various atmospheric constituents absorb infrared energy, then emit at a wavelength commensurate with the temperature of that part of the atmosphere.

Упражнение 11.

Переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения that.

1. Here we discuss several classes of models, with an emphasis on atmospheric models. The discussion closely follows that of Henderson-Sellers and McGuffie (1987), which is an excellent resource on the subject (and has an updated edition).

2. One of the most interesting aspects of these simple models is that they already produce multiple equilibria, having solutions for ice-free and ice-covered Earths as well as a more temperate solution (like the current climate).

3. Given constant boundary conditions, the model will equilibrate such that the energy budget is balanced, giving a model of the vertical (especially temperature) structure of the atmosphere.

4. Given particular conditions, it is expected that the sea ice in the North Pole region will completely melt in the summer.

5. The Earth's surface obtains energy from four primary sources: space (predominantly solar radiation), the molten core of the Earth, anthropogenic processes that generate excess heat, and radiation from the atmosphere.

Упражнение 12.

Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на способы перевода местоимения it.

1. Climate is a broad term, but it always describes a long-term average of a system.

2. All planets with rotational days unequal to their orbital years absorb their sun's heat during their day and release it at night.

3. This is all to say that climate science is a multi-disciplinary field, with diverse (even disparate at times) interests and applications. It is unified only by the end goal: to understand the physical processes governing our natural world.

4. The emission from the atmosphere goes both out to space and downward, back to the ground where it is absorbed by the surface. It increases the surface temperature on Earth from the radiative equilibrium temperature to a much more life-friendly temperature.

5. Nearly all the energy impacting Earth's climate comes from the sun, even if it is sometimes indirectly.

6. This section should make it clear that the geometry of the Sun-Earth system plays a key role in how much sunlight reaches Earth and where it arrives.

7. First consider conservation of energy in an equilibrium system. This could be a tank of water with a heating lamp above it all enclosed in a box. It could be a simple blackbody system, or any isolated system.

8. What happens to incoming solar radiation when it arrives in the atmosphere?

9. The photon can continue unimpeded, ultimately reaching the surface and being absorbed or reflected; while the photon is traveling through a medium without interacting, it is said to be transmitted.

10. It is impossible to enumerate and describe every climate model that has ever been developed; even doing so for the published literature would be prohibitively difficult.

Упражнение 13.

Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на способы перевода местоимения it.

1. It should also be noted that the shortwave light reflected by the surface does have a chance of being reflected (by clouds or particulate matter) or absorbed by atmospheric constituents.

2. It is the presence of the atmosphere - because of its ability to absorb the emitted infrared radiation - that the surface temperature is a much more comfortable temperature.

3. What is it that allows the atmosphere to absorb infrared radiation, and for that matter, why is it so transparent to visible radiation?

4. When the model is used to approximate the equations of motion on a sphere, it can be called a general circulation model (GCM).

5. Before starting to describe the uncertainty associated with climate models, it is important to emphasize that climate models are the best tools currently available for studying the climate of Earth and other planets.

6. In fact, in chaotic systems it has been shown that arbitrarily small errors in the initial conditions can give wildly different results after some amount of time.

7. It has been shown that the globally averaged surface temperature is now warmer than it has been for at least 150 years.

8. Earth is now absorbing 0.85±0.15 W m-2 more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space.

9. While it is nice to think that changing our energy consumption habits will stop global warming, it could very well be that climate change is being driven by processes that we have little control over.

10. Liquid water gets deep into the ice sheet, lubricating and destabilizing it, and huge discharges of ice spill into the north Atlantic.


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Energy Flow in the Biosphere | Biosphere | Nuclear fusion | Types and Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution | Indoor Air Pollution | Pollution | The Roots of Environmental Degradation and Pollution | Industrial and Photichemical Smog | Acid deposition | Тренировочные упражнения |

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