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Types and Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution

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As clean air moves across the earth's surface, it collects additional loads of chemicals produced by natural events and human activities. Once in the troposphere, potential air pollutants mix vertically and horizontally and often react chemically with each other or with natural components of the atmosphere. When the concentration of a normal component of air or a new chemical added to or formed in the air builds up to the point of causing harm to humans, other animals, vegetation, or materials such as metals and stone, that chemicals is classified as an air pollutant. Worldwide, each year air pollution causes at least 150,000 premature deaths, causes or aggravates debilitating respiratory diseases for tens of millions of people, and result in at least $ 100 billion in damages to crops, trees, buildings, and other objects.

Although there are hundreds of potential air pollutants, most air pollution results from six major classes of substances. About 90% of all air pollution problems are caused by five groups of pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxide, volatile organic compounds (mostly hydrocarbons), and suspended particulate matter. Natural sources of air pollutants include forest fires started by lightning, pollen dispersal, wind erosion of soil, volcanic eruptions, evaporation of volatile organic compounds from leaves, bacterial decomposition of organic matter, sea spray (sulfate particles), and natural radioactivity (radon- 222 gas from deposits of uranium, phosphate, and granite). But emissions from natural sources are dispersed throughout the world and rarely reach concentrations high enough to cause serious damage. Exceptions include massive injections of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from volcanic eruptions and build up of radon-222 gas inside buildings. Most potential pollutants are added to the troposphere as result of human activities: mainly the burning of fossil fuels in power and industrial plants (stationary sources), and in motor vehicles (mobile sources).

Air pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondary. A primary air pollutant is a harmful chemical that directly enters the air as result of natural events or human activities. A secondary air pollutant is a harmful chemical that forms in the air because of a chemical reaction between two or more air components.

Вправа 3.

Підберіть відповідний заголовок до кожного абзацу:

Primary and Secondary Air Pollutants;

Major Types of Outdoor Air Pollutants;

Sources of Outdoor Air Pollutants.

Вправа 4.

Прочитайте наступні слова і визначте їх відповідності
в Російській мові:

type, collect, chemical, natural, activity, troposphere, vertically, horizontally, reaction, component, material, classify, respiratory, result, potential, problem, organic, bacterial, radioactivity, concentration, volcanic, motor.

Вправа 5.

Знайдіть в тексті приклади цих частин мови.

 v.  n.  adj.  adv.  prep.

Вправа 6.

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Вправа 8.

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Вправа 9.

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 1. Each year air pollution result ... at least $ 100 billion in damages to crops, trees, buildings etc.2. When visibility is reduced, airports rely ... radar control.3. In 1830 Babbage designed a machine to carry ... complex arithmetical calculations.4. A protein may consist ... several polypeptide chains held together by weak molecular bonds.5. In 1937 four Soviet scientistsset ... temporary scientific stations on drifting icebergs in the Arctic.6. Chemists can work ... the number of carbon atoms from the weight of the object.7. Testosterone is involved ... the development of secondary sex characteristics such as the growth of body hair, and changes in the larynx.8. It is the ability to use the Sun and the stars to navigate which accounts ... the migration of birds.9. The level of pH depends ... the strength of the acid.  a. to do / to performb. to be made of / formed fromc. to be determined byd. to calculate / find the solutione. to create / establishf. to use because you have confidenceg. to be linked / a necessary part ofh. to provide an explanationi. to cause

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1. Чому повітря в приміщенні сьогодні набагато чистіше?

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Human Influences | Hydrology | Vegetation | Deforestation | Carbon and Oxygen Cycles | Biogeochemical Cycles | Phosphorus Cycle | Nitrogen Cycle | Energy Flow in the Biosphere | Biosphere |

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