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Sea level changes

  1. A Levels
  2. B) Describe the changes on the London Stock Exchange brought about by Big Bang.
  3. B) Discuss the reasons which led to the creation of the UK debt market and its structural changes in the late 80s.
  4. B) Reread the text more carefully to describe the changes in the Yankee offerings and the interests of US investors.
  5. Circulation changes
  6. Effect of Changes in Supply Frequency on Torque and Speed
  7. Exercise 1. Change the nouns into the plural. Use some (any) where necessary and make the other necessary changes.

The mechanisms influencing sea level over the globe are extremely complex. Present sea level is not easy to define, estimates of sea levels over the past 100 years are difficult to make, and predictions over the next 100 years are highly speculative. Sea level changes are influenced by the following mechanisms (those of short time scales - i.e. tens of years-italicized);

1 Changes in осеan water mass - e.g. exchanges with glaciers; changes in the atmosphere-earth-ocean-ice-water distribution.

2 Changes in ocean water volume - e.g. thermal expansion and contraction; salinity changes; changes in atmospheric pressure.

3 Changes in earth crustal levels.

(A) Tectonic - e.g. rise of ocean ridges; sea-floor subsidence; plate movements.

(B) Isostatic - e.g. tectonic loading; ice and water loading.

4 Changes in the global distribution of water

(A) Terrestrial rotation effects.

(C) Global axis changes.

(D) Terrestrial gravity variations.

(E) Changes in the attraction of sun and moon.

(F) Changes in the velocity of ocean currents.

Over the past 100 years, the general global sea level has risen by 10-25 cm or more, accelerating during the century. This rise has been attributed proportionately to the following causes:

1 Thermal expansion of ocean waters (2-7 cm; i.e. possibly 50 per cent or more). This is difficult to estimate due to lack of knowledge regarding oceanic circulations, such that estimates vary from 30 to 60 per cent.

2 Glacier and small ice cap melting (2-5 cm; i.e. possibly 30 per cent). Estimates of this contribution to sea level rise go as high as 48 percent.

3 Greenland ice cap melting (very indeterminate). This could be as great as 25 per cent and as little as 5 per cent.

4 Antarctic ice sheet melting. This is very uncertain; the Antarctic ice sheet is a large and complex system with its own internal mechanisms and a mass balance that changes slowly. Some workers believe the balance is positive, which would offset sea level rise. This source has probably not yet contributed greatly to the global sea level rise but may do so in the future.

Uncertainties regarding sea level rise are still considerable, mainly because of our lack of knowledge concerning the behavior of the large ice sheets, especially Antarctica. There is even the possibility that increased global warming may introduce a tendency for sea level to fallbecause of increased snow accumulation rates in high latitudes. Another outside possibility is that a rise in sea level might cause the West Antarctic ice sheet to be buoyed up and melt bodily (not just around the edges, as in the past) and cause a further catastrophic sea level rise but spread over several hundred years . Final considerations are the possible effects of extreme sea level events (such as tides, waves and storm surges), but these are extremely difficult to predict.

Вправа 2.

Прочитайте наступні слова і визначте їх відповідності
в Російській мові:

Mechanism, globe, complex, thermal, crustal, tectonic, effect, gravity, proportionately, circulation, contribution, sheet, system, balance, positive, tendency, accumulation, catastrophic, final, extreme, storm.

Вправа 3.

Які частини мови позначаються в словниках наступними скороченнями:

v., adv., n., adj., conj., num., part., prep., pron.?

Вправа 4.

Визначте, до яких частин мови належать такі слова; напишіть відповідні англійські скорочення для кожного з них:

Global, first, distribution, of, behavior, that, to, and, greatly, are, contributed, hundred, vary.

Вправа 5.

Знайдіть в тексті приклади цих частин мови.

 v.  n.  adj.  adv.  num.  prep.  part.

Вправа 6.

Утворіть причастя 1 і 2 роду з наступних дієслів. Знайдіть приклади таких дієприкметників в тексті з вправи 1.

Define, make, offset, introduce, fall, cause, spread, predict.

Вправа 7.

У правій колонці знайдіть російські еквіваленти наступних англійських словосполучень:

 1. sea level rise2. thermal expansion3. mass balance4. global warming5. atmospheric pressure6. complex system7. plate movement8. global axis9. sea-floor subsidence  a. рух тектонічних плітb. складна сістемаc. опускання морського днаd. підйом рівня моряe. баланс массиf .земная осьg. атмосферний давленіеh. теплове расшіреніеi. глобальне потепління

Вправа 8.

Прочитайте текст і знайдіть в ньому відповіді на наступні питання:

1. Де знаходяться основні запаси вуглецю?

2. Яка роль океанів в глобальному вуглецевому циклі?

3. Чому зростання концентрації вуглекислого газу в атмосфері не обов'язково призведе до збільшення продуктивності океану?

(Контрольний час - 5 хвилин)

Water-Facts and Figures | Supply, Renewal and Use of Water Resources | Groundwater | Water Resource Problems | The U.S. Situation | Desertification: A Serious and Growing Problem | Climate forcing and feedbacks | Short-term forcing and feedback | Anthropogenic factors of recent climatic change | Circulation changes |

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