1. Transistor is a marvelous, virtually invisible _____________ _____________ that changed our lives.
2. The vacuum tube ____________ music and voice during the first half of the 20th century.
3. Transistors are made of semi-conductors such as _____________ and gallium arsenide.
4. Thanks to such techniques as photolithography and computer-aided _____________, millions of transistors and other _____________, _____________, complete with wiring, can be compactly organized on an integrated circuit smaller than a cornflake.
5. If to build the sequence of transistors in one way, chip can be made to amplify weak _____________ signals into rich quadraphonic hi-fidelity sound.
6. If transistors are arranged in a different array, arithmetic and _____________ logic processors can be created.
7. Scientists today know how to build _____________ materials virtually atom by atom, from a wide selection of materials.
|Invented at Bell Laboratories in 1947 the transistor resulted from efforts to find a better amplifier and a replacement for mechanical relays. The vacuum tube amplified music and voice during the first half of the 20th century, and it made long-distance calling practical. But it consumed lots of power, operated hot and burned out rapidly. Cheaper to make than the vacuum tube and far more reliable, the transistor cut the cost and improved the quality of phone service.1. ______________________________The Transistor has many applications, but only two basic functions: switching and modulation. Transistor controls current flow, be it through a lamp or a device to be activated. Both acts as a switch-on / off-and as a modulator / amplifier hight / low. The important difference is that the "hand" operating the transistor is millions of times fast. And it's attached to another electrical source - a radio signal in an antenna, for example, a voice in a microphone, or data signal in a computer system, or even another transistor.2. ______________________________Transistors Are made of semi-conductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. These materials carry electricity moderately well - not well enough to be called a conductor, like copper wires; not badly enough to be called an insulator, like a piece of glass. Hence their name is semi-conductor. The 'magic' a transistor performs is in its ability to control its own semiconductance, namely acting like a conductor when needed, or as an insulator (nonconductor) when that is needed.3. ______________________________ Semi-conductors differ in the way they act electrically. Putting a thin piece of semiconductor of one type between two slices of another type has startling results: a little current in the central slice is able to control the flow of the current between the other two. That little current in the middle slice is the juice that is supplied by an antenna or another transistor for example. Even when the input current is weak, as from a radio signal that's traveled a great distance, the transistor can control a strong current from another circuit through itself. In effect, the current through the 'output side' of the transistor mimics the behavior of the current through the 'input side'. The result is a strong, amplified version of the weak radio signal.4. ______________________________In Microchips today, which contain millions of transistors 'integrated' together in a particular pattern or 'design', the amplified output of one transistor drives other transistors that, in turn, drive others, and so on. Build the sequence one way and the chip can be made to amplify weak antenna signals into rich quadraphonic hi-fidelity sound. Build the chip differently, and the transistors interact to create timers to control watches or microwave oven, or sensors to monitor temperatures, detect intruders, or control car wheels from locking (ABS systems). Arrange the transistors in a different array and create arithmetic and logic processors that drive calculators to calculate, computers to compute, 'process' words, search complex data bases for information, networks to 'talk' to each other, or systems that transmit voice, data, graphics and video to make our communications networks.It may take a score of transistors, interconnected in teams called logic gates, to accomplish a task as simple as adding one and one. But put enough transistors together in appropriate patterns and transistors end up knock off big jobs by working fast-switching on and off 100 million times per second or more-and by working in huge teams.As discrete components as in the old days, a thousand transistors would occupy dozens of printed circuit boards the size of postcards. But thanks to such techniques as photolithography and computer-aided design, millions of transistors and other electronic components, complete with wiring, can be compactly organized on an integrated circuit smaller than a cornflake.5. ______________________________At This scale, the cost of the transistor today is virtually free - about a hundred thousandth of a cent apiece. And transistors in integrated circuits are extremely reliable. If spared from electrical shocks and blows from blunt instruments, a working microchip will probably keep on working for a hundred years.The way to make transistors still better, cheaper, and more efficient is to understand semiconductors even better. And that's just what Bell Labs is up to. Its scientists today know how to build semiconductor materials virtually atom by atom, from a wide selection of materials using sophisticated layering techniques that mother nature herself would be proud of. It's almost like magic. So, what is a transistor? It's a marvelous, virtually invisible electronic device that has changed our lives ... forever.|
14. Reread the text and mark the following statements as "true", "false" or "no information":
|1. The telephone network required hundreds of thousands of relays to connect circuits together to complete calls and its cost was very low.|
|2. The transistor has only two basic functions: switching and modulation - the latter often used to achieve amplification.|
|3. The way to make transistors still better, cheaper, and more efficient is to understand conductors better.|
|4. Thanks to such techniques as photolithography and computer-aided design, millions of transistors and other electronic components, complete with wiring, can be compactly organized on an integrated circuit tiny in size.|
|5. In microchips today, which contain millions of transistors 'integrated' together in a particular pattern or 'design', the amplified output of one transistor drives other transistors that, in turn, drive others, and so on. So the device purpose depends on the sequence of transistors in the integrated circuit.|
|6. Both the dimmer and the transistor monitor current flow, be it through a lamp or a device to be activated.|
|7. The cost of the transistor today is not high.|
|8. Semiconductors studying will help to improve transistors.|
|9. Transistors cooperate to create timers to control watches or microwave oven, or sensors to monitor temperatures, detect intruders, or control car wheels from locking (ABS systems|
|10. Silicon and gallium arsenide carry electricity well enough to be called a conductor, like copper wires.|
|on the photo: The first transistor built around a single atom was created by scientists at Cornell University in 2002. Buried inside a specially designed molecule was a lone atom of cobalt. When the molecule was hooked up to an electronic circuit, the cobalt atom responded to a control voltage by changing the current through the device. This is only what an ordinary transistor would do, but the invention could be a step towards something new - molecular electronics. This technology promises circuits built by chemical synthesis in the future, to replace the current technique of etching shapes on to silicon.|
|SPECIALIST READING||Text B: THE JUNCTION TRANSISTOR|
15. Read the text and decide whether these points are discussed in it.
|n-type emitter has many extra electrons||Low doping use|
|n-type and p-type||p-n junctions|
|How much current goes through a transistor||n-type emitter|
|To understand how a transistor works, first consider a diode. It is a simple union of the two most fundamental kinds of semiconductor, known as n-type and p-type. Both conduct current, but the n-type does it with electrons, while the p-type depends on electron deficiencies, better known as holes.Joining these two types of semiconductors forms what is known as a p-n junction at their boundary. This is the core of a semiconductor diode, which conducts current in one direction.Connect a battery's positive terminal to the n-type material and electrons are attracted to that terminal, while holes in the p- type material move toward the negative terminal. The diode is said to be reverse-biased, and hardly any p-n junction current flows.Now reverse the battery connections. Electrons in the n-type material move toward the junction and are constantly replenished by the battery. Meanwhile, holes in the p-type material stream toward the junction, repelled by the positive battery terminal. The depletion region shrinks tremendously as holes and electrons combine at the junction, neutralizing one another, as more stream in on either side from the battery. The diode is said to be forward-biased; current flows easily. Thus, a diode can control the direction of current, but not how large it is.A transistor, on the other hand, can control how much current goes through it and also act as an amplifier. The simplest transistor has three parts: an emitter, a base, and a collector.In an npn transistor the n-type emitter has many extra electrons, the relatively thin p-type base has a small number of holes, and the n-type collector has a moderate number of electrons, (junction transistors are also known as bipolar devices because, in the emitter, holes and electrons flow in opposite directions) .A transistor amplifier takes a small, varying voltage - an input signal - between the base and the emitter, and uses it to control a larger current flowing from the emitter to the collector. That's the output. The key agents in this amplification are||the depletion regions. With two p-n junctions in the device, there are two depletion regions: one between the emitter and the base, the other between the base and the collector.First, the emitter-base diode is forward-biased by a voltage source. Electrons flow from the emitter into the base. The base-collector diode, on the other hand, is reverse-biased, so that holes will not flow into the base, which would intercept any electrons coming across from the emitter and therefore block current from flowing through the device.With this setup, the current through the transistor, from emitter to collector, is controlled by the depletion region around the emitter-base junction. When it is thick, the current is choked off; when it is thin, lots of current flows through the device. But hold on - when it is thin, and electrons shoot across the emitter-base junction, are not they blocked by the fat depletion region around the base-collector junction? No - the base is narrow, so the momentum of the electrons pouring in from the emitter brings them close to that junction. From there, the positive voltage at the junction then sweeps most of the electrons into the collector. Only a few are lost in the base as they move into the vacant holes.The transistor is designed so that the flow of electrons from emitter to collector is very sensitive to the current into the base. This is done by making the base very thin (so electrons do not have far to go before reaching the collector) and using low doping (electrons can not easily find vacant holes to fill). The voltage across the base-emitter junction provides the electric field that drives electrons from the base into the collector.With the emitter-base junction forward-biased, a varying voltage put on top of it - an input signal - varies the depletion region, which in turn varies a relatively large current flowing through the device. Add a load resistor in the collector circuit, and that small varying input produces a much larger varying collector voltage. Depending on the circuit, the result will be current, voltage, or power amplification.|
16. Summarize general ideas of the text; try to enumerate more fields of transistors application. Justify your ideas.
17. After reading. Look through the Text B again and explain the pictures in a scientific way:
|WRITING||Problem solving: a universal broadcast design|
19. Project work. Divide in to groups (A; B). Using the information of the module as well as your own ideas, try to solve these problems:
A. In what devices transistors seem to reach its highest significance in the nearest future?
B. Imagine a situation when all transistors will not work any more in all possible devices due to some harmful influence. What would substitute transistors? Would it be a step forward or back to the vacuum lamps?
The following discourse marker may help you:
|logical end||These expressions are used for finishing one's speech.||in conclusion (of), in conclusion the following should be mentioned, come to the conclusion that, to complete, to put a finish to, to roll up my speech (informal)|
|For years we've been hearing about all the fantastic things computers will be able to do once they process data with light instead of electricity. A golden age of limitless computing power and bandwidth will usher in a techno-utopia.Optical computing schemes lack the photonic equivalent of the most fundamental computing element, the transistor.A team of scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has at its disposal an extraordinary prototype transistor that can switch on and off more than 700 billion times per second, faster than any other transistor in the world. Within two years some samples of this transistor were inspected, which are made from indium phosphide and indium-gallium-arsenide, the same sort of semiconductor compounds used in today's light-emitting diodes and laser diodes.A new, more powerful kind of device, a transistor laser was engineered. This transistor puts out both electrical signals and a laser beam, which can be directly modulated to send optical signals at the rate of 10 billion bits per second. With some further modification, the transistor laser will eventually send a staggering 100 billion bits per second or more. And it will likely do so at room temperature.The ability to send and receive signals at the equivalent of three DVDs worth of data - 100 billion bits - per second could turn those herky-jerky teleconferences between offices in Tokyo and New York City into high -resolution events. Supercomputer grids crunching the test data from the world's most advanced particle accelerators might produce results in minutes instead of days.First, a computer sends an electrical signal to an optical transmitter, where the signal is converted into pulses of light. The transmitter contains a laser and an electrical driver, which uses the source data carried in the electrical signal to modulate the laser beam, turning it on and off to generate 1s and 0s that travel on the beam through glass fiber. At the end of the fiber, a photodetector reads and converts the data encoded in the photons back into electrical data.||Now imagine implementing a similar process inside a chip, at the transistor level. Transistor lasers can be used to convert electrical signals into optical signals and vice versa.Transistor lasers can be used as optical interconnects instead of using relatively slow wires to connect chips stacked together in packages. These would let data flow instantaneously to and from memory chips, graphics processors, and microprocessors, supercharging weather forecasting and online banking, security checks and telesurgery, airline reservation systems and video games, just about any application. And then there are the applications we can not even imagine yet.|
|SUPPLEMENTARY READING||Transistor Laser|
|GRAMMAR FILES||Contextual use of prepositions|
Prepositions must always be followed by a noun or pronoun. That noun is called the object of the preposition. A verb can not be the object of a preposition.
This rule may seem confusing at first, because you may have seen words that look like verbs following the preposition to in sentences; for example: I like to ski or These boots are for skiing.
However, in these examples, the ski and skiing are not actually acting as verbs.
· In the first example, to ski is part of the infinitive. An infinitive is NOT a verb. An infinitive occurs when a verb is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Here, "to ski" is a THING that the person likes doing, not an action that they are doing. It is a verbal noun.
· In the second example, skiing is a gerund. Like an infinitive, a gerund is NOT a verb, but is instead a noun, adjective or adverb. Here, "skiing" is a thing that the boots are for. No one in this sentence is doing the action of skiing.
|amplifier (amplify)amplitude modulation AM, bias frequencybias generatorbipolarbroadband amplifiercollectorconductorcoredeficiencydiodediscrete componentemitteramplifierfrequency modulation FMholeinputinput currentintegratejunctionlogic gatelow-current amplifiermodulationradio-frequency amplifierrelayresistorsemiconductorsequencesiliconslicetransistorvoltage amplifier||усілітельамплітудная модуляціячастота (струму) генератор напряженіябіполярний транзистор широкосмуговий підсилювач накопітельпроводніксердечнік, жила (проводу) недолік, дефіцит, нехваткадіоддіскретний компонентеміттерусілітельчастотная модуляція електронна вакансія, отвір, діра, диркавход, вводвходной токоб'едінять, інтегріроватьпереход, контактлогіческій елементусілітель слабких токовмодуляціярадіочастотний усилительрелерезисторполупроводникпоследовательностькремнийполупроводниковая пластінатранзісторусілітель напруги|
I. LISTENING AND READING
Listen to the text
Read and translate the text
Another day, Another dollar
James Cash is a very rich man - in fact, he's a multi-millionaire. He is thirty-five years old and lives in a mansion in the country. He is the chairman of a big company.
Every day he has breakfast in bed. He usually has boiled eggs and champagne! He makes phone calls and reads the newspapers at breakfast time. Then he gets dressed. His servants help him. He always wears a smart suit to the office.
At seven o'clock his chauffeur drives him to his office. He has business meetings every morning. Every afternoon he looks at the sales reports. Sales go up every year because business is good.
In the evenings he likes to entertain important business clients. They often go to his favourite night club, Madame JoJo's. They have dinner, drink champagne and watch a cabaret.
At two o'clock in the morning his chauffeur drives him home. He goes to bed half an hour later, and dreams about sales figures. James is always exhausted. The next day is exactly the same. Would you want a job like his?
|1. a multi-millionaire [?m?lti?m?lj?ne?r]||мультимільйонер|
|2. mansion [m?n??n] Mansion has extensive grounds||особняк, великий домВокруг особняка великий парк.|
|3. chairman [t?e?rm?n] Mr. Chairman, may I be recognized?||голова, презідентГ-н голова, прошу слова!|
|4. company [k?mp (?) ni] Max works for a large oil company.||фірма, спільнота, собственнікМакс працює у великій нафтовій компанії.|
|5. to have breakfast [brekf?st] to have lunch [l?nt?] to have dinner [d?n? (r)] to have supper [s?p? (r)]||завтракатьперекусітьобедатьужінать|
|6. boiled [?b??ld]||варений|
|7. egg [e?]||яйце|
|8. champagne [???mpe?n] Break out the champagne!||шампанскоеОткройте шампанське!|
|9. to make a phone call [f?un k??l]||дзвонити|
|10. to get dressed [?et drest]||одягатися|
|11. servant [s??rv?nt]||слуга, прислуга|
|12. to wear [we?r] (wear-wore-worn) He wears jeans and T-shirts.||носітьОн носить джинси і футболки|
|13. suit [su?t] smart suit||костюмделовой костюм|
|14. chauffeur [??uf?r] Discover a good chauffeur.||водій, шоферНайті хорошого шофера.|
|15. to have a business meeting [b?zn?s mi?t??] I often take notes at businessmeetings.||ділова зустріч Я часто пишу замітки на ділових зустрічах.|
|16. sales report [se?lz r?p??rt]||звіт про продажі, торговий звіт, обсяг продажів|
|17. to entertain [?ent? (r) te?n] They entertain a great deal.||приймати, розважати гостейОні часто влаштовують прийоми.|
|18. client [kla??nt] A lawyer acts for his client.||постійний покупателькліентАдвокат веде справи свого клієнта.|
|19. favourite [fe?v (?) r?t] Mathematics is my favourite subject.||улюблений; ізлюбленнийМатематіка - мій улюблений предмет.|
|20. madame [m?d?m] Madame Tussaud's||мадам, пані; госпожаМузей мадам Тюссо|
|21. cabaret [k?b?re?] Cabaret show||кабаре; кафешантанЕстрадное уявлення в ресторані|
|22. figure [f??? (r)] A figure expressed as a percentage||цифра; число; кількісні дані; Число, виражене у відсотках|
|23. to be exhausted [??z??st?d] Exhaust all possibilities||бути виснаженим, бути в ізнеможенііІсчерпать всі можливості|
|24. exactly [??z?k (t) li] Arrive exactly on time.||точно; як раз; іменноПріехать точно в призначений час.|
|25. the same [se?m] A picture by the same hand.||той же самий; однообразнийКартіна кисті того ж художника.|
III. COMPREHENSION CHECK
1. Answer the questions:
1. Is James Cash rich or poor? What is his financial status?
2. What does he do? What is his position?
3. Is he an old man? How old is he?
4. Does he live in a flat? Where is his mansion located? Where does James Cash usually have breakfast?
5. What does he usually have for breakfast?
6. What does he do at breakfast time?
7. Does he get dressed himself?
8. What does he always wear to the office?
9. What time does his chauffer drive him to the office?
10. What does he do every morning?
11. What does he do every afternoon?
12. Why do sales go up every year
13. What does he like to do in the evenings?
14. Where do they often go?
15. What do they do at madam JoJo's?
16. What time does his chauffer drive him home?
17. What does he dream about?
18. How does James feel? Why?
19. Would you want a job like his?
IV. GRAMMAR: The Present SIMPLE Tense (просте Теперішній час)
Present SIMPLE вживається для позначення:
Дієслово в Present Simple має наступні форми | Структура негативного пропозиції | Make the sentences negative and interrogative. | Put the verbs in the brackets into Present Simple. | Open the brackets and put the verbs into Present Simple | Put the adverbs in the brackets in the appropriate place. | Look at the information about Andrew, Peter, and Lucy. Then form the question or the reply. | Translate the sentences from Russian into English. |