COMPUTER CRIMES 
Task 1. Read and translate the text:
Завдання 1. Прочитайте і перекладіть текст:
The development of computer technology and its wide use have lead to appearance and spread of computer crimes. Such situation causes alarm among those organizations and legislative institutions that use computer technologies and, of course, people, who use new informational services at homes.
The term "computer crime" was first used in the early 70s. However, the discussions concerning it are still actual. The top question of these discussions is "What unlawful actions are implied by computer crime". A rank of definitions of the computer crime has been composed. It often refers to crimes directly or indirectly connected to electronic computing machines and which includes a number of illegal acts, committed by means of electronic data processing system or against it. Others consider that computer crime is any action, which goes together with interfering with property rights and fulfilled by means of computers. The thirds think that computer crime can be defined as all intentional and unlawful actions, which lead to causing harm to possessions, with help of computers too.
The most dangerous individuals of computer swindle are so called "hackers", "crackers" and representatives of other groups, working in the sphere of industrial espionage. So, many security specialists advise employers to pay special attention to engaged workers-specialists in computer technologies, programming and information protection spheres.
There are many causes, when "hackers" get a job with a goal of personal enrichment. But the most danger can represent such specialists, who are in collusion with managers of commercial structures and organized criminal groups; in these situations causing damage and weight of consequences considerably increases.
There are two types of unsanctioned access: internal «Breaking open» - the
criminal has access to the terminal, with information he interested in and can work with it for some time without somebody's control; and external «Breaking open» - the criminal does not have indirect access to the computer system, but has an opportunity of penetration to the protected
system by means of remote access.
Task 2. Answer the following questions:
Завдання 2. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
1. What is a computer crime?
2. What types of unsanctioned access do you know?
3. Who are the so called «crackers» and «hackers»?
4. What is the difference between a «cracker» and a «hacker»?
5. Why can some specialists represent a danger?
Task 3. Find the English equivalents for the words given below:
Завдання 2. Знайдіть еквіваленти наступних слів в тексті:
включати, роботодавець, радити, звертати увагу, програмування, збільшувати, наслідки, віддалений доступ, можливість, проникнення.
Task 4. Complete the sentences according to the text:
Завдання 2. Доповніть наступні пропозиції:
1. The term "computer crime" often refers to ....
2. Computer crime cause alarm among ....
3. Many computer specialists advise employers ....
4. The two types of unsanctioned access are ....
5. A computer crime can be defined as ....