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# LESSON 1

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**FROM THE HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER [2]**

**Task 1. Read and translate the text:**

**Завдання 1. Прочитайте і перекладіть текст:**

The introduction of agriculture revolutionized ancient man's social, economic, and cultural potential. This was the first great step in the evolution of civilization. The more recent Industrial Revolution, vastly increasing man's productive capabilities, was the next great step and brought forth our present highly mechanized economic and interdependent social civilization.

Nowadays we have another new kind of revolution, based on machines that greatly increase man's thinking capabilities of planning, analysing, computing, and controlling. Hundreds of millions of computers are already in daily use penetrating almost all spheres of our modern society, from nuclear energy production and missile design to the processing of bank checks and medical diagnoses.

The development of mechanical calculating machines made the digital computers necessary. An ordinary arithmometer and a desk key calculator have given rise to electronic digital computers. Digital computers came into being in the first half of the 17th century. Many outstanding Russian and foreign mathematicians of the time created mechanical calculating devices.

The famous Russian scientist M.V. Lomonosov compiled a lot of calculating tables and several computing devices concerning different fields of science and engineering.

In 1874 the Russian engineer V.T. Ordner invented a special counter wheel named after him the Ordner's wheel which is used in modern arithmometers and calculators.

P.L. Chebyshev, academician, made a valuable contribution to the field of computing machine. He is known to have many good ideas in mathematics, some of which have been named after him. For example, the Chebyshev's polynomials play a unique role in the field of orthogonal functions. In +1878 he constructed the original computing machine which was exhibited in Paris. In 1882 P.L. Chebyshev invented an arithmometer performing automatically multiplication and division. The principle of automatization put into tins computing machine is still widely used all over the world when developing the most modern computers.

In 1884 Russia began to manufacture computing machines. In the period of World War I the output of computing machines ceased and was resumed later.

At the end of the 1930s computing engineering began the new era. Electronic computers operating at high speed appeared, with electronic devices and units being applied.

The rapid advance of computers followed the success achieved by electronics. There appeared a possibility to solve complex mathematical problems within an unusually short time. The modern computing engineering enables to do the amount of calculations and researches within a week's time which would have required years of laborious work of large groups of people before.

Invention of electronic computers is one of the greatest achievements of mankind. The significance of it can be compared with the invention of the steam-engine at the end of the 18th century and the utilization of atomic energy.

**Task 2. Answer the following questions:**

**Завдання 2. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:**

1. What was the first step in the evolution of civilization?

2. What is already in daily use penetrating all spheres of modern society?

3. What made the digital computers necessary?

4. Who invented a special counter wheel?

5. Who made a great contribution to the field of computing machine?

6. What did he construct?

7. When did Russia begin to manufacture computing machines?

**Task 3.Translate the following words and word** - **combinations into Russian:**

**Завдання 3. Прочитайте наступні слова і словосполучення і переведіть їх на російську мову:**

Introduction, social, recent, increase, capability, penetrate, digital, concern, valuable, contribution, exhibit, division, appear, rapid, enable.

**Task 4. Make the sentences interrogative:**

**Завдання 4. Поставте наступні пропозиції в запитливо форму:**

1. The rapid advance of computers followed the success achieved by electronics.

2. In 1884 Russia began to manufacture computing machines.

3. The development of mechanical calculating machines made the digital computers necessary.

4. Invention of electronic computers is one of the greatest achievements of mankind.

5. Hundreds of millions of computers are already in daily use penetrating almost all spheres of our modern society.

**Task 5. Fill in the blanks with the following words given below:**

**Завдання 5. Замість пропусків вставте відповідні слова з тексту:**

Л. М. Митрофаненко | Маркосян, Г. Е. | LESSON 3 | LESSON 4 | LESSON 5 | LESSON 6 | LESSON 7 | LESSON 8 | LESSON 9 | LESSON 10 |