The alimentary tract is a musculomembraneous canal about 8½ metres in length. It extends from the oral cavity to the anus. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The liver with gallbladder and pancreas are the large glands of the alimentary tract.
The first division of the alimentary tract is formed by the mouth. Important structures of the mouth are the teeth and the tongue, which is the organ of taste. The soft and hard palates and the salivary glands are also in the oral cavity.
From the mouth food passes through the pharynx to the esophagus and then to the stomach.
The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. It measures about 21 -25 cm in length, 8-9 cm in its greatest diameter. It has a capacity of from 2.14 to 4.28 1 (litres).
The small intestine is a thin-walled muscular tube about 6.5 metres long. It is located in the middle portion of the abdominal cavity. The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
The large intestine is the last part of the alimentary tract. Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass useless waste material from the body. It is about 1.5 metres long. It is divided into caecum, colon and rectum.
The liver is the largest gland in the human body. It is in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The weight of the liver is 1,500 g. This organ plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification.
The gallbladder is a hollow sac lying on the lower surface of the liver, where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine.
The pancreas is a long thin gland lying behind the stomach.
Exercise 6.Answer the questions to the text:
1. What is the alimentary tract?
2. What does the alimentary tract consist of?
3. What is the 1st division of the alimentary tract formed by?
4. What is the stomach?
5. What is the small intestine?
6. What is the function of the large intestine?
7. What largest gland in the human body do you know?
8. What is the function of the gallbladder?
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations into English:
Травний тракт, проходити через глотку в стравохід, простягатися від порожнини рота до ануса, під діафрагмою, мати ємкість, тонкостінна м'язова трубка, середня частина черевної порожнини, найбільша залоза в тілі людини, ряд функцій в організмі, розкладання еритроцитів, відігравати важливу роль в обміні речовин, товста та пряма кишки.
Exercise 8.Match the terms with their definitions:
|1. alimentary tract 2. stomach 3. pharynx 4. small intestine 5. large intestine 6. esophagus||a) the passage between the pharynx and the stomach b) the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone c) beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum; includes the caecum and the colon and the rectum; extracts moisture from food residues which are later excreted as feces d) the tubular passage extending from the mouth to the anus, through which food is passed and digested e) the longest part of the alimentary canal; where digestion is completed f) an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion|
Exercise 9. Fill in prepositions from the box below where necessary and translate into your native language:
One of the most common locations ____ a foreign body is the alimentary tract.
It is possible ___ foreign bodies to enter the tract from the mouth, or from the rectum.
The objects most commonly swallowed ____ children are coins. Meat impaction is more common ____ adults.
Swallowed objects are more likely to lodge ____ the esophagus or stomach than ____ the pharynx or duodenum.
____ the person who swallowed the foreign body is doing well, usually a x-ray image will be taken. It will show any metal objects, and should be repeated a few days later to confirm that the object has passed all the way _____ the alimentery tract. Also it needs to be confirmed that the object is not stuck in the airways, in the bronchial tree.
Most objects that are swallowed will pass all the way ____ the gastrointestinal tract unaided.
____ the foreign body causes problems like pain, vomiting ____ bleeding it must be removed.
|If (2); by; or; in (3); for (2); through (2)|
Exercise 10. Say what organ is spoken about:
I. This organ is the largest gland in the human body. It is in the upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm in the right side of the abdomen. Its upper surface is convex. This organ consists of small lobules connected together by connective tissue, different vessels and nerves.
II. This organ is pyriform (грушевидный) in shape. It is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. The liver is above this organ, and the colon is below it. The pancreas is behind this organ.
III. It is the beginning of the alimentary tract and the digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.
IV. This organ is the portion of the alimentary tract that is located between the stomach and rectum. In the human being it is divided in to two parts. Its function is to digest food and to enable the nutrients released from that food to enter into the bloodstream.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text | Grammar in Use | Exercise 1. Learn the following new words | Exercise 5. Read and translate the text | Exercise 10. Fill in prepositions from the box below where necessary | Exercise 1. Translate into Russian paying attention to the Infinitives. | Anatomy of the nervous system | Anatomy of the nervous system | Complex Object Construction | Physiology of the nervous system |