1. historic / historical
historic - [adj]
important in history, or likely to be considered important at some time in the future
In London you can see a lot of areas of special architectural or historic interest.
historical - [adj]
connected with history or with the past; connected with history as a subject of study; used for describing someone or something as they really existed in the past; historicalresearch/evidence/ traditions / novel
Note:a historic event - an event which is well-remembered; a historical event - an event which took place in history.
2. leave / abandon
to leave - [v]
to go away from a person or a place
Theshipleftbeforedawn. My secretary has threatened to leave.
to abandon - [v]
to leave a person, especially someone you are responsible for; to go away from a place, especially because it is difficult or dangerous to stay there; to stop doing smth. or being involved in smth. because there are too many problems and it is impossible to continue; to leave something in a place, especially because you are in a hurry or are trying to escape
Hismotherabandonedhimwhenhewasfivedaysold. After 20 lessonsIfinallyabandonedmyattempttolearntodrive. Thestolencarwasabandonedonlyfivemilesaway.
3. coast / shore / beach / seaside
the coast - [n, singular]
an area of land beside a sea, used to talk about a country or a large part of a country
We were driving along the Californian coast, from San Francisco to LA. She lives in a small village on the south coast of England.
the shore - [n, singular]
the land along the edge of the sea or along the edge of the lake
We could see a boat about a mile fromthe shore. TheystayedinahotelontheshoreofLake Geneva.
a beach - [n, C]
an area of sand or small stones beside a sea or a lake
the seaside - [n, singular]
a place by the sea, especially a holiday resort
When I was little we used to go to the seaside most weekends.
4. repair / fix / decorate / redecorate / renovate / restore / maintain / mend
to repair - [v]
to mend smth. that is broken or damaged
repairs - [n, C, usually plural]
work that is done to fix smth., an act or result of repairing smth.
to fix - [v]
to repair smth. that is broken or not working properly, especially a machine
The radio isn't working - can youfix it? I have to get my car fixed.
to decorate - [v]
(BrE)to put paint or paper on the walls of a room
We decorated the kitchen last week.
to redecorate - [v]
to paint a room again or put new wallpaper on the walls
The paint on the wall in the cellar has chipped off, you should redecorate it.
to renovate - [v]
to make something old look new again by repairing and improving it, especially a building
The old hospital needs renovating.
to restore - [v]
to clean and repair something old and dirty or damaged so that it looks the same as it did originally
The church has now been beautifully restored.
to maintain - [v]
to make regular repairs to the building, road, vehicle etc. so that it stays in good condition
The house is large and difficult to maintain.
maintenance - [n, U]
regular work done to check and repair smth. so that it stays in good condition
Mr. White is responsible for the maintenance of the school buildings.
to mend - [v]
to repair smth. that is broken or not working, or smth. that has a hole in it
When are you going to mend the fence?
5. destroy / ruin / damage / harm / spoil / injure
to destroy - [v]
to damage smth. so badly that it cannot be repaired
The earthquake destroyedmuch of the city.
to ruin- [v]
to destroy or severely damage something so that it loses all its value, pleasure, etc.; to spoil something
You'll completely ruin the flowers if you touch them. They didn't want to be accused of ruining everyone's fun.
to damage - [v]
to cause physical harm to something, so that it no longer looks good or works properly; to have a bad effect on something, in a way that makes it weaker, less effective, or less successful; Synonym: to harm
Don't put any hot pans on the table - you'll damage the surface. The scandal will damage the company's reputation.
damage / harm - [n, U]
the serious problems that smth. causes for a person, organization etc.; to do harm / damage
If you keep criticizing children, it can do a lot of harm. Once the damage is done, even modern surgery can't undo it entirely.
to harm - [v]
to damage smth; to have a bad effect on something, in a way that makes it weaker, less effective, or less successful; Synonym: to damage
Too much direct sunlight will harm the plant.
If the peace talks fail, it will harm the President's chances of being re-elected.
to spoil- [v]
to affect something in a way that makes it worse, less attractive, or less enjoyable
Radio towers spoilt the view. Don't let him spoil your evening.
to injure - [v]
to cause physical harm to someone or to yourself, for example in an accident or an attack; to be injured
One of the players injured his knee and had to be carried off.
6. cause / reason
a cause (of) - [n, C]
a person, event, or thing that makes smth. happen
What was the cause of the fire? The doctor recorded the cause of death as heart failure.
a reason (for / why / that) - [n, C]
the cause or explanation for smth. that has happened or that someone has done; areason for / why / that
The only reason I went was that I wanted to meet your friends. What are your reasons for leaving the job?
b) Fill in the gaps choosing an appropriate word in the correct form:
1. historic / historical
3. You must place these events in their__________context.
VOCABULARY COMMENTARY I | II. Find English equivalents for the following Russian words and word combinations (pp. 6 - 7). | IV. Translate the following sentences into English using the active vocabulary of the text (pp. 6-7). | V. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the active vocabulary (p.8). | VI. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the active vocabulary (pp.8-9). | VII. a) Use character adjectives from the list to match their definitions (p.9). | VIII. Translate the sentences from Russian into English, based on the listening comprehension exercise on p. 9. | X. Translate into English using the correct prepositions (pp. 11-12). | The palace has been ________ to its former grandeur. | A) Blarney Castle |