SAFETY ISSUES

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Staining wood has a few hazards that you need to be aware of. Most concerns are from using oil base stains.

These products are flammable and rags soaked with stain can self combust. To avoid any unfortunate events put all used rags into a bucket filled with water. The rags can be put into the trash can on the scheduled pick-up day and hauled away.

Another concern is fumes. Always supply good ventilation and never apply oil base products near open flames. This includes pilot lights and smoking.

Keep these chemicals away from children. Stains are poisonous when in a liquid form.

Prolonged exposure to the skin should be avoided. Use nitrile gloves and protective clothing.

20 a) Read the instruction how to make a clear finish varnish coat. But the phases are messed up. Arrange them into correct order:

After the stain has dried to the color you want, you are ready for the final step - the clear finish varnish coat. Follow these steps:

a) Test with your finger, to make sure the first coat of varnish is absolutely dry. Normally, drying takes about three days. Even the slightest suggestion of stickiness to the touch means you should let it alone for another day. Once you are positive that the drying out process is complete, rub the surface down lightly with 0000 steel wool and carefully wipe off the dust.

b) Apply the second coat. Again, let the varnish set for at least three days, then repeat the finger test. When you are certain it is absolutely dry, rub down with 0000 steel wool as before, but this time dip the steel wool in paste wax. After the wax has dried 10 or 15 minutes, buff with a soft cloth, and you will be amazed at the beautiful stain that results. If you have previously refinished furniture and did not achieve this professional look, try rubbing it down with steel wool and past wax. You should notice a tremendous improvement.

c) Soak your brush in the varnish for at least 1 hour before using. This is extremely important because most brush strokes that are visible after drying result from using a brush that has not been thoroughly saturated.

d) Do not clean your brush after the first application. Because you will be putting on a second coat in most cases, just dip the brush in the varnish until it is well saturated then wrap it tightly in plastic food wrap. This will keep it moist for several days so that it will be tip-top condition when you are ready for the next step.

e) Stroke varnish on as rapidly as possible. Refrain from going back and forth or brushing over an area after the varnish has started to dry. Use only a moderate amount of varnish, particularly if you live in a humid climate because a heavy coating will take forever to dry. In any event, it makes good sense to avoid undertaking varnishing projects during spells of heavy rain or very humid weather, unless you have air conditioning or a dehumidifier in the work area.



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STONE and CAST STONE | B) Explain the words in bold from the text and make up sentences of your own. Use English-English dictionaries to help you. | CAST STONE | Watch the video and present the main idea of each episode in 4-5 sentences using the expressions from Appendix 2. | B) Find English equivalents to the expressions in bold given in the texts. | WORD LIST | PAINTS, WOOD STAINS, VARNISHES and COLOUR | B) Explain the words in bold from the text and make up sentences of your own. Use English-English dictionaries to help you. | PAINT and VARNISH REMOVERS | |

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